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Title: Cold Filamentary Accretion and the Formation of Metal-poor Globular Clusters and Halo Stars

Abstract

We propose that cold filamentary accretion in massive galaxies at high redshifts can lead to the formation of star-forming clumps in the halos of these galaxies without dark matter substructure. In certain cases, these clumps can be the birthplaces of metal-poor globular clusters (MP GCs). Using cosmological simulations, we show that narrow streams of dense gas feeding massive galaxies from the cosmic web can fragment, producing star-forming clumps. We then derive an analytical model for the properties of streams as a function of halo mass and redshift, and assess when these are gravitationally unstable, when this can lead to collapse and star formation in the halo, and when it may result in the formation of MP GCs. For stream metallicities $$\gtrsim 0.01{Z}_{\odot }$$, this is likely to occur at $$z\gt 4.5$$. At $$z\sim 6$$, the collapsing clouds have masses of $$\sim (5\mbox{--}10)\times {10}^{7}\,{M}_{\odot }$$, and the average stream pressure is $$\sim {10}^{6}\,{\mathrm{cm}}^{-3}\,{\rm{K}}$$. The conditions for GC formation are met in the extremely turbulent "eyewall" at $$\sim 0.3{R}_{{\rm{v}}}$$, where counter-rotating streams can collide, driving very large densities. Our scenario can account for the observed kinematics and spatial distribution of MP GCs, the correlation between their mass and metallicity, and the mass ratio between the GC system and the host halo. For MW-mass halos, we infer that $$\sim 30 \% $$ of MP GCs could have formed in this way, with the remainder likely accreted in mergers. Our predictions for GC formation along circumgalactic filaments at high redshift are testable with JWST.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Astronomy; Heidelberger Inst. für Theoretische, Heidelberg (Germany)
  2. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  3. Univ. of California Observatories, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  4. Univ. Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany). Inst. fūr Theoretische Astrophysik
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1544066
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 861; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Astronomy & Astrophysics

Citation Formats

Mandelker, Nir, Dokkum, Pieter G. van, Brodie, Jean P., Bosch, Frank C. van den, and Ceverino, Daniel. Cold Filamentary Accretion and the Formation of Metal-poor Globular Clusters and Halo Stars. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaca98.
Mandelker, Nir, Dokkum, Pieter G. van, Brodie, Jean P., Bosch, Frank C. van den, & Ceverino, Daniel. Cold Filamentary Accretion and the Formation of Metal-poor Globular Clusters and Halo Stars. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaca98.
Mandelker, Nir, Dokkum, Pieter G. van, Brodie, Jean P., Bosch, Frank C. van den, and Ceverino, Daniel. Mon . "Cold Filamentary Accretion and the Formation of Metal-poor Globular Clusters and Halo Stars". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaca98.
@article{osti_1544066,
title = {Cold Filamentary Accretion and the Formation of Metal-poor Globular Clusters and Halo Stars},
author = {Mandelker, Nir and Dokkum, Pieter G. van and Brodie, Jean P. and Bosch, Frank C. van den and Ceverino, Daniel},
abstractNote = {We propose that cold filamentary accretion in massive galaxies at high redshifts can lead to the formation of star-forming clumps in the halos of these galaxies without dark matter substructure. In certain cases, these clumps can be the birthplaces of metal-poor globular clusters (MP GCs). Using cosmological simulations, we show that narrow streams of dense gas feeding massive galaxies from the cosmic web can fragment, producing star-forming clumps. We then derive an analytical model for the properties of streams as a function of halo mass and redshift, and assess when these are gravitationally unstable, when this can lead to collapse and star formation in the halo, and when it may result in the formation of MP GCs. For stream metallicities $\gtrsim 0.01{Z}_{\odot }$, this is likely to occur at $z\gt 4.5$. At $z\sim 6$, the collapsing clouds have masses of $\sim (5\mbox{--}10)\times {10}^{7}\,{M}_{\odot }$, and the average stream pressure is $\sim {10}^{6}\,{\mathrm{cm}}^{-3}\,{\rm{K}}$. The conditions for GC formation are met in the extremely turbulent "eyewall" at $\sim 0.3{R}_{{\rm{v}}}$, where counter-rotating streams can collide, driving very large densities. Our scenario can account for the observed kinematics and spatial distribution of MP GCs, the correlation between their mass and metallicity, and the mass ratio between the GC system and the host halo. For MW-mass halos, we infer that $\sim 30 \% $ of MP GCs could have formed in this way, with the remainder likely accreted in mergers. Our predictions for GC formation along circumgalactic filaments at high redshift are testable with JWST.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aaca98},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
issn = {1538-4357},
number = 2,
volume = 861,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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Galaxy bimodality due to cold flows and shock heating
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Stochastic Self-Enrichment, Pre-Enrichment, and the Formation of Globular Clusters
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On the star formation rate - brightest cluster relation: estimating the peak star formation rate in post-merger galaxies
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A Universal Model for halo Concentrations
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Compaction and quenching of high-z galaxies in cosmological simulations: blue and red nuggets
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Dark matter and the origin of galaxies and globular star clusters
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Extensive Globular Cluster Systems Associated with Ultra Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster
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Evidence Against dark Matter Halos Surrounding the Globular Clusters mgc1 and ngc 2419
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Comparing the statistics of interstellar turbulence in simulations and observations: Solenoidal versus compressive turbulence forcing
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The rates and modes of gas accretion on to galaxies and their gaseous haloes: Gas accretion on to galaxies and haloes
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POSSIBLE SIGNATURES OF A COLD-FLOW DISK FROM MUSE USING A z ∼ 1 GALAXY–QUASAR PAIR TOWARD SDSS J1422−0001
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Jeans instability criterion modified by external tidal field
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Gravitational quenching in massive galaxies and clusters by clumpy accretion: Gravitational quenching by clumpy accretion
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Probing the role of the galactic environment in the formation of stellar clusters, using M83 as a test bench
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A cosmic web filament revealed in Lyman-α emission around a luminous high-redshift quasar
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Intergalactic Medium Emission Observations with the Cosmic web Imager. i. the Circum-Qso Medium of qso 1549+19, and Evidence for a Filamentary gas Inflow
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Molecular gas in the halo fuels the growth of a massive cluster galaxy at high redshift
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A Catalog of Globular Cluster Systems: what Determines the size of a Galaxy'S Globular Cluster Population?
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On the effect of cosmological inflow on turbulence and instability in galactic discs: Cosmological inflow and disc turbulence
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The Hydrodynamic Stability of Gaseous Cosmic Filaments
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Are we seeing accretion flows in a 250 kpc Ly α halo at z = 3 ?
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A stellar feedback origin for neutral hydrogen in high-redshift quasar-mass haloes
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Local stability of a gravitating filament: a dispersion relation
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Star Cluster Formation in Cosmological Simulations. i. Properties of Young Clusters
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The origin of the Milky Way globular clusters
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The formation of globular clusters in merging and interacting galaxies
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Radiative feedback and the low efficiency of galaxy formation in low-mass haloes at high redshift
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Spin alignments within the cosmic web: a theory of constrained tidal torques near filaments
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Wide-Field Precision Kinematics of the m87 Globular Cluster System
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Similarities in Populations of star Clusters
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Ly�� blobs as an observational signature of cold accretion streams into galaxies
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Toy models for galaxy formation versus simulations
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Accretion-driven turbulence as universal process: galaxies, molecular clouds, and protostellar disks
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The Sluggs Survey: ngc 3115, a Critical test case for Metallicity Bimodality in Globular Cluster Systems
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On the fraction of star clusters surviving the embedded phase
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Gas inflow and metallicity drops in star-forming galaxies
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A unified model for the maximum mass scales of molecular clouds, stellar clusters and high-redshift clumps
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Finding forming globular clusters at high redshifts
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A z = 3.045 Lyα emitting halo hosting a QSO and a possible candidate for AGN-triggered star formation★
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