skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Characterizing the Potential for Injection-Induced Fault Reactivation Through Subsurface Structural Mapping and Stress Field Analysis, Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas: Injection-Induced Fault Slip, Kansas

Abstract

Kansas, like other parts of the central U.S., has experienced a recent increase in seismicity. Correlation of these events with brine disposal operations suggests pore fluid pressure increases are reactivating preexisting faults, but rigorous evaluation at injection sites is lacking. Here we determine the suitability of CO 2 injection into the Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group for long-term storage and into a Mississippian reservoir for enhanced oil recovery in Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas. To determine the potential for injection-induced earthquakes, we map subsurface faults and estimate in situ stresses, perform slip and dilation tendency analyses to identify well-oriented faults relative to the estimated stress field, and determine the pressure changes required to induce slip at reservoir and basement depths. Three-dimensional seismic reflection data reveal 12 near-vertical faults, mostly striking NNE, consistent with nodal planes from moment tensor solutions from recent earthquakes in the region. Most of the faults cut both reservoirs and several clearly penetrate the Precambrian basement. Drilling-induced fractures (N = 40) identified from image logs and inversion of earthquake moment tensor solutions (N = 65) indicate that the maximum horizontal stress is approximately EW. Slip tendency analysis indicates that faults striking <020° are stable under current reservoir conditions, whereasmore » faults striking 020°–049° may be prone to reactivation with increasing pore fluid pressure. Although the proposed injection volume (40,000 t) is unlikely to reactive faults at reservoir depths, high-rate injection operations could reach pressures beyond the critical threshold for slip within the basement, as demonstrated by the large number of injection-induced earthquakes west of the study area.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1537313
Grant/Contract Number:  
FE0002056
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Geochemistry & Geophysics

Citation Formats

Schwab, Drew R., Bidgoli, Tandis S., and Taylor, Michael H. Characterizing the Potential for Injection-Induced Fault Reactivation Through Subsurface Structural Mapping and Stress Field Analysis, Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas: Injection-Induced Fault Slip, Kansas. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017jb014071.
Schwab, Drew R., Bidgoli, Tandis S., & Taylor, Michael H. Characterizing the Potential for Injection-Induced Fault Reactivation Through Subsurface Structural Mapping and Stress Field Analysis, Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas: Injection-Induced Fault Slip, Kansas. United States. doi:10.1002/2017jb014071.
Schwab, Drew R., Bidgoli, Tandis S., and Taylor, Michael H. Tue . "Characterizing the Potential for Injection-Induced Fault Reactivation Through Subsurface Structural Mapping and Stress Field Analysis, Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas: Injection-Induced Fault Slip, Kansas". United States. doi:10.1002/2017jb014071. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1537313.
@article{osti_1537313,
title = {Characterizing the Potential for Injection-Induced Fault Reactivation Through Subsurface Structural Mapping and Stress Field Analysis, Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas: Injection-Induced Fault Slip, Kansas},
author = {Schwab, Drew R. and Bidgoli, Tandis S. and Taylor, Michael H.},
abstractNote = {Kansas, like other parts of the central U.S., has experienced a recent increase in seismicity. Correlation of these events with brine disposal operations suggests pore fluid pressure increases are reactivating preexisting faults, but rigorous evaluation at injection sites is lacking. Here we determine the suitability of CO2 injection into the Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group for long-term storage and into a Mississippian reservoir for enhanced oil recovery in Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas. To determine the potential for injection-induced earthquakes, we map subsurface faults and estimate in situ stresses, perform slip and dilation tendency analyses to identify well-oriented faults relative to the estimated stress field, and determine the pressure changes required to induce slip at reservoir and basement depths. Three-dimensional seismic reflection data reveal 12 near-vertical faults, mostly striking NNE, consistent with nodal planes from moment tensor solutions from recent earthquakes in the region. Most of the faults cut both reservoirs and several clearly penetrate the Precambrian basement. Drilling-induced fractures (N = 40) identified from image logs and inversion of earthquake moment tensor solutions (N = 65) indicate that the maximum horizontal stress is approximately EW. Slip tendency analysis indicates that faults striking <020° are stable under current reservoir conditions, whereas faults striking 020°–049° may be prone to reactivation with increasing pore fluid pressure. Although the proposed injection volume (40,000 t) is unlikely to reactive faults at reservoir depths, high-rate injection operations could reach pressures beyond the critical threshold for slip within the basement, as demonstrated by the large number of injection-induced earthquakes west of the study area.},
doi = {10.1002/2017jb014071},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth},
issn = {2169-9313},
number = 12,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Response of Regional Seismicity to the Static Stress Change Produced by the Loma Prieta Earthquake
journal, March 1992


The treatment and disposal of waste brine solutions
journal, December 1987


Determination of stress orientation and magnitude in deep wells
journal, October 2003

  • Zoback, M. D.; Barton, C. A.; Brudy, M.
  • International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 40, Issue 7-8
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2003.07.001

Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas
journal, August 2012


3-D seismic discontinuity for faults and stratigraphic features: The coherence cube
journal, October 1995

  • Bahorich, Mike; Farmer, Steve
  • The Leading Edge, Vol. 14, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1190/1.1437077

Waterflood Management: A Case Study of the Northwest Fault Block Area of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, Using Streamline Simulation and Traditional Waterflood Analysis
conference, April 2013

  • Grinestaff, G. H.; Caffrey, Daniel J.
  • SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition
  • DOI: 10.2118/63152-MS

Earthquakes as beacons of stress change
journal, September 2000

  • Seeber, Leonardo; Armbruster, John G.
  • Nature, Vol. 407, Issue 6800
  • DOI: 10.1038/35024055

Global patterns of tectonic stress
journal, September 1989

  • Zoback, Mary Lou; Zoback, Mark D.; Adams, J.
  • Nature, Vol. 341, Issue 6240
  • DOI: 10.1038/341291a0

CO2 Sequestration in Deep Sedimentary Formations
journal, October 2008


Densities of Metamorphic Rocks
journal, August 1971


Coreflooding Studies to Evaluate the Impact of Salinity and Wettability on Oil Recovery Efficiency
journal, May 2008

  • Agbalaka, Chinedu C.; Dandekar, Abhijit Y.; Patil, Shirish L.
  • Transport in Porous Media, Vol. 76, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11242-008-9235-7

An Experiment in Earthquake Control at Rangely, Colorado
journal, March 1976


State of stress in the conterminous United States
journal, November 1980

  • Zoback, Mary Lou; Zoback, Mark
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 85, Issue B11
  • DOI: 10.1029/JB085iB11p06113

Optimal Fault Orientations within Oklahoma
journal, September 2013


Wettability and Its Effect on Oil Recovery
journal, December 1990

  • Morrow, Norman R.
  • Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 42, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.2118/21621-PA

Impact of CO 2 geological sequestration on the nucleation of earthquakes : CO
journal, September 2011

  • Cappa, Frédéric; Rutqvist, Jonny
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048487

Modeling of Dissolution Effects on Waterflooding
journal, November 2014

  • Alexeev, Artem; Shapiro, Alexander; Thomsen, Kaj
  • Transport in Porous Media, Vol. 106, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11242-014-0413-5

M-logA Observations for Recent Large Earthquakes
journal, February 2008

  • Hanks, T. C.; Bakun, W. H.
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 98, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120070174

Salinity, Temperature, Oil Composition, and Oil Recovery by Waterflooding
journal, November 1997

  • Tang, G. Q.; Morrow, N. R.
  • SPE Reservoir Engineering, Vol. 12, Issue 04
  • DOI: 10.2118/36680-PA

How faulting keeps the crust strong
journal, January 2000


Constraining the stress tensor in the Visund field, Norwegian North Sea: Application to wellbore stability and sand production
journal, January 2000


Stress tensor analysis in the Taiwan area from focal mechanisms of earthquakes
journal, December 1991


Friction of rocks
journal, January 1978

  • Byerlee, J.
  • Pure and Applied Geophysics PAGEOPH, Vol. 116, Issue 4-5
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00876528

Use of focal mechanisms to determine stress: A control study
journal, January 1987


An improved method for determining the regional stress tensor using earthquake focal mechanism data: Application to the San Fernando Earthquake Sequence
journal, January 1984

  • Gephart, John W.; Forsyth, Donald W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 89, Issue B11
  • DOI: 10.1029/JB089iB11p09305

Seismic moments and volume changes
journal, March 1976


Determination of stress from slip data: Faults and folds
journal, December 1984


Use of relational databases to evaluate regional petroleum accumulation, groundwater flow, and CO2 sequestration in Kansas
journal, December 2005

  • Carr, Timothy R.; Merriam, Daniel F.; Bartley, Jeremy D.
  • AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 89, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1306/07190504086

Iterative joint inversion for stress and fault orientations from focal mechanisms
journal, July 2014

  • Vavryčuk, Václav
  • Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 199, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggu224

A dynamic model for the Permian Panhandle and Hugoton fields, western Anadarko basin
journal, July 2005


Injection-Induced Earthquakes
journal, July 2013


The relationship between closure pressures from fluid injection tests and the minimum principal stress in strong rocks
journal, July 2007

  • Nelson, Emma J.; Chipperfield, Simon T.; Hillis, Richard R.
  • International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 44, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2006.10.004

Aeromagnetic Study of the Midcontinent Gravity High of Central United States
journal, January 1971


Long term impacts of cold CO2 injection on the caprock integrity
journal, May 2014

  • Vilarrasa, Víctor; Olivella, Sebastià; Carrera, Jesús
  • International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol. 24
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.02.016

Well bore breakouts and in situ stress
journal, June 1985

  • Zoback, Mark D.; Moos, Daniel; Mastin, Larry
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 90, Issue B7
  • DOI: 10.1029/JB090iB07p05523

High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity
journal, June 2015


Gravity and Magnetic Evidence for the Eastern Termination of the Lake Superior Syncline
journal, January 1973


The role of stress transfer in earthquake occurrence
journal, December 1999


The 2001-Present Induced Earthquake Sequence in the Raton Basin of Northern New Mexico and Southern Colorado
journal, September 2014

  • Rubinstein, J. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; McGarr, A.
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 104, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120140009

First- and second-order patterns of stress in the lithosphere: The World Stress Map Project
journal, January 1992

  • Zoback, Mary Lou
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, Issue B8
  • DOI: 10.1029/92JB00132

Increased seismicity in Kansas
journal, June 2015


Deformation of the North American plate interior from a decade of continuous GPS measurements: DEFORMATION OF NORTH AMERICAN PLATE
journal, June 2006

  • Calais, E.; Han, J. Y.; DeMets, C.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 111, Issue B6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JB004253

Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide
journal, June 2012

  • Zoback, M. D.; Gorelick, S. M.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 109, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1202473109

Reservoir Management For Waterfloods-Part II
journal, January 1998

  • Baker, Richard
  • Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, Vol. 37, Issue 01
  • DOI: 10.2118/98-01-DA

Oklahoma experiences largest earthquake during ongoing regional wastewater injection hazard mitigation efforts: The 3 September 2016,
journal, January 2017

  • Yeck, W. L.; Hayes, G. P.; McNamara, D. E.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071685

Seismicity, faulting, and geophysical anomalies in Nemaha County, Kansas: Relationship to regional structures
journal, January 1979


In-situ stress directions from borehole fracture traces
journal, May 1990


Correlation of Gravity Anomalies with the Keweenawan Geology of Wisconsin and Minnesota
journal, January 1956


Potentially induced earthquakes in Oklahoma, USA: Links between wastewater injection and the 2011 Mw 5.7 earthquake sequence
journal, June 2013

  • Keranen, Katie M.; Savage, Heather M.; Abers, Geoffrey A.
  • Geology, Vol. 41, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1130/G34045.1

Sharp increase in central Oklahoma seismicity since 2008 induced by massive wastewater injection
journal, July 2014


Steady-State Failure Equilibrium and Deformation of Intraplate Lithosphere
journal, May 2002


New Evidence on the State of Stress of the San Andreas Fault System
journal, November 1987


The Denver EarthquakeS
journal, September 1968


Determination of the mean principal directions of stresses for a given fault population
journal, July 1979


A Combined Experimental−Computational Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Capture in a Series of Isoreticular Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks
journal, August 2010

  • Morris, William; Leung, Belinda; Furukawa, Hiroyasu
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, Issue 32, p. 11006-11008
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja104035j

Role of Capillary Forces In Detennining Microscopic Displacement Efficiency For Oil Recovery By Waterflooding
journal, October 1974

  • Melrose, J. C.
  • Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, Vol. 13, Issue 04
  • DOI: 10.2118/74-04-05

Investigating stress regimes in sedimentary basins using information from oil industry wireline logs and drilling records
journal, January 1990


Fluid flow along potentially active faults in crystalline rock
journal, January 1995


Estimating fault stability and sustainable fluid pressures for underground storage of CO2 in porous rock
journal, July 2004


Tests of the rigid-plate hypothesis and bounds on intraplate deformation using geodetic data from very long baseline interferometry
journal, June 1996

  • Argus, Donald F.; Gordon, Richard G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 101, Issue B6
  • DOI: 10.1029/95JB03775

Northeast-southwest compressive stress in Alberta evidence from oil wells
journal, November 1979


A study of injection-induced mechanical deformation at the In Salah CO2 storage project
journal, March 2011

  • Morris, Joseph P.; Hao, Yue; Foxall, William
  • International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2010.10.004

Slip-tendency analysis and fault reactivation
journal, January 1996