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Title: Formation of stellar clusters in magnetized, filamentary infrared dark clouds

Abstract

Star formation in a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC) is simulated over the dynamic range of 4.2 pc to 28 au for a period of 3.5 × 10 5 yr, including magnetic fields and both radiative and outflow feedback from the protostars. At the end of the simulation, the star formation efficiency is 4.3 per cent and the star formation rate per free-fall time is ε ff ≃ 0.04, within the range of observed values. The total stellar mass increases as ~t 2, whereas the number of protostars increases as ~t 1.5. We postulate that the density profile around most of the simulated protostars is ~ρ ∝ r -1.5. At the end of the simulation, the protostellar mass function approaches the Chabrier stellar initial mass function. We infer that the time to form a star of median mass 0.2 M is about 1.4 × 10 5 yr from the median mass accretion rate. We find good consensus among the protostellar luminosities observed in the large sample of Dunham et al., our simulation and a theoretical estimate, and we conclude that the classical protostellar luminosity problem is resolved. The multiplicity of the stellar systems in the simulation agrees, to withinmore » a factor of 2, with observations of Class I young stellar objects; most of the simulated multiple systems are unbound. Bipolar protostellar outflows are launched using a subgrid model, and extend up to 1 pc from their host star. The mass–velocity relation of the simulated outflows is consistent with both observation and theory.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1523826
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 473; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; magnetic fields; radiative transfer; turbulence; stars: formation; stars: luminosity function; mass function; stars: winds; outflows

Citation Formats

Li, Pak Shing, Klein, Richard I., and McKee, Christopher F. Formation of stellar clusters in magnetized, filamentary infrared dark clouds. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx2611.
Li, Pak Shing, Klein, Richard I., & McKee, Christopher F. Formation of stellar clusters in magnetized, filamentary infrared dark clouds. United States. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx2611
Li, Pak Shing, Klein, Richard I., and McKee, Christopher F. Sat . "Formation of stellar clusters in magnetized, filamentary infrared dark clouds". United States. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx2611. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1523826.
@article{osti_1523826,
title = {Formation of stellar clusters in magnetized, filamentary infrared dark clouds},
author = {Li, Pak Shing and Klein, Richard I. and McKee, Christopher F.},
abstractNote = {Star formation in a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC) is simulated over the dynamic range of 4.2 pc to 28 au for a period of 3.5 × 105 yr, including magnetic fields and both radiative and outflow feedback from the protostars. At the end of the simulation, the star formation efficiency is 4.3 per cent and the star formation rate per free-fall time is εff ≃ 0.04, within the range of observed values. The total stellar mass increases as ~t2, whereas the number of protostars increases as ~t1.5. We postulate that the density profile around most of the simulated protostars is ~ρ ∝ r-1.5. At the end of the simulation, the protostellar mass function approaches the Chabrier stellar initial mass function. We infer that the time to form a star of median mass 0.2 M⊙ is about 1.4 × 105 yr from the median mass accretion rate. We find good consensus among the protostellar luminosities observed in the large sample of Dunham et al., our simulation and a theoretical estimate, and we conclude that the classical protostellar luminosity problem is resolved. The multiplicity of the stellar systems in the simulation agrees, to within a factor of 2, with observations of Class I young stellar objects; most of the simulated multiple systems are unbound. Bipolar protostellar outflows are launched using a subgrid model, and extend up to 1 pc from their host star. The mass–velocity relation of the simulated outflows is consistent with both observation and theory.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stx2611},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1523826}, journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
issn = {0035-8711},
number = 3,
volume = 473,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 14 works
Citation information provided by
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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Logarithmic-scale column-density map of the whole simulation region viewed along the mean magnetic field direction at 0.5$$t$$ ff. The rectangular boxes mark the zoom-in region in the simulation, in which the AMR is allowed to refine up to a maximum of six levels. Protostars are allowed to formmore » only inside the zoom-in region at the finest level. The total volume of the zoom-in region is 4.2 pc 3. The white circles mark the 100 most massive clumps identified at this time; see Li et al. (2015b) for a discussion of the 100 most massive clumps.« less

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

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