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Title: Holistic Assessment of SO 2 Injections Using CESM1(WACCM): Introduction to the Special Issue

Abstract

We introduce a special issue on a holistic assessment of geoengineering via stratospheric SO2 injection in the state-of-the-art climate model, Community Earth System Model, version 1 with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model as its atmospheric component (CESM1(WACCM)). This model has numerous complexities that allow it to represent some of the most important nonlinearities associated with stratospheric SO2 injection, including aerosol microphysical growth and stratospheric chemistry. The studies described herein represent the steps towards and first attempt in a state-of-the-art climate model to use geoengineering to meet multiple simultaneous objectives via SO2 injection at multiple locations. First, a “matrix” of simulations was carried out to better understand the response of geoengineering to variations in latitude, altitude, and amount of sulfur dioxide injections. Subsequently, in a century long simulation, a feedback algorithm was employed to meet specific objectives and manage uncertainty, wherein the injection amount at each location was adjusted every model year. Most of the analyses contained in this special issue focus on surface climate and stratospheric changes in the matrix and century long simulations. In addition, 20 ensemble members of the feedback simulation have been carried out and provided to the community to expand the scope of analyses tomore » low signal-to-noise ratio fields, including regional effects, impacts assessment, and extreme events. The demonstration provided by these simulations is a step toward understanding the space of achievable climate objectives via geoengineering, or, phrased differently, determining what geoengineering can do and what it cannot do.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [4];  [4]
  1. Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change DivisionPacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland WA USA
  2. Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringCornell University Ithaca NY USA
  3. Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling GroupNational Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder CO USA; Climate and Global Dynamics GroupNational Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder CO USA
  4. Climate and Global Dynamics GroupNational Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder CO USA
  5. Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling GroupNational Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder CO USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1507530
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-136054
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 124; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Kravitz, Ben, MacMartin, Douglas G., Tilmes, Simone, Richter, Jadwiga H., Mills, Michael J., Lamarque, Jean‐Francois, Tribbia, Joseph, and Large, William. Holistic Assessment of SO2 Injections Using CESM1(WACCM): Introduction to the Special Issue. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1029/2018JD029293.
Kravitz, Ben, MacMartin, Douglas G., Tilmes, Simone, Richter, Jadwiga H., Mills, Michael J., Lamarque, Jean‐Francois, Tribbia, Joseph, & Large, William. Holistic Assessment of SO2 Injections Using CESM1(WACCM): Introduction to the Special Issue. United States. doi:10.1029/2018JD029293.
Kravitz, Ben, MacMartin, Douglas G., Tilmes, Simone, Richter, Jadwiga H., Mills, Michael J., Lamarque, Jean‐Francois, Tribbia, Joseph, and Large, William. Thu . "Holistic Assessment of SO2 Injections Using CESM1(WACCM): Introduction to the Special Issue". United States. doi:10.1029/2018JD029293.
@article{osti_1507530,
title = {Holistic Assessment of SO2 Injections Using CESM1(WACCM): Introduction to the Special Issue},
author = {Kravitz, Ben and MacMartin, Douglas G. and Tilmes, Simone and Richter, Jadwiga H. and Mills, Michael J. and Lamarque, Jean‐Francois and Tribbia, Joseph and Large, William},
abstractNote = {We introduce a special issue on a holistic assessment of geoengineering via stratospheric SO2 injection in the state-of-the-art climate model, Community Earth System Model, version 1 with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model as its atmospheric component (CESM1(WACCM)). This model has numerous complexities that allow it to represent some of the most important nonlinearities associated with stratospheric SO2 injection, including aerosol microphysical growth and stratospheric chemistry. The studies described herein represent the steps towards and first attempt in a state-of-the-art climate model to use geoengineering to meet multiple simultaneous objectives via SO2 injection at multiple locations. First, a “matrix” of simulations was carried out to better understand the response of geoengineering to variations in latitude, altitude, and amount of sulfur dioxide injections. Subsequently, in a century long simulation, a feedback algorithm was employed to meet specific objectives and manage uncertainty, wherein the injection amount at each location was adjusted every model year. Most of the analyses contained in this special issue focus on surface climate and stratospheric changes in the matrix and century long simulations. In addition, 20 ensemble members of the feedback simulation have been carried out and provided to the community to expand the scope of analyses to low signal-to-noise ratio fields, including regional effects, impacts assessment, and extreme events. The demonstration provided by these simulations is a step toward understanding the space of achievable climate objectives via geoengineering, or, phrased differently, determining what geoengineering can do and what it cannot do.},
doi = {10.1029/2018JD029293},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
issn = {2169-897X},
number = 2,
volume = 124,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}