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Title: Global Carbon Budget 2018

Abstract

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components ofthe global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2emissions (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land use and land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2008–2017), EFF was9.4±0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.5±0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.7±0.02 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.4±0.5more » GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.2±0.8 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of0.5 GtC yr-1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For the year 2017 alone, the growth in EFF was about 1.6 %and emissions increased to 9.9±0.5 GtC yr-1. Also for 2017,ELUC was 1.4±0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.6±0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.5±0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.8±0.8 GtC yr-1,with a BIM of 0.3 GtC. The global atmosphericCO2 concentration reached 405.0±0.1 ppm averaged over 2017.For 2018, preliminary data for the first 6–9 months indicate a renewed growth in EFF of +2.7 % (range of 1.8 % to 3.7 %) based on national emission projections for China, the US, the EU, and India and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. The analysis presented here shows that the mean and trend in the five components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period of 1959–2017,but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr-1 persist for the representation of semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. A detailed comparison among individual estimates and the introduction of a broad range of observations show (1) no consensus in the mean and trend in land-use change emissions, (2) a persistent low agreement among the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra-tropics,and (3) an apparent underestimation of the CO2 variability by ocean models, originating outside the tropics. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2018, 2016,2015a, b, 2014, 2013). All results presented here can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2018.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7];  [8];  [9]; ORCiD logo [10];  [11]; ORCiD logo [12];  [13];  [12];  [14];  [15] more »;  [12];  [1];  [16]; ORCiD logo [17]; ORCiD logo [4];  [18]; ORCiD logo [13];  [19]; ORCiD logo [20]; ORCiD logo [21]; ORCiD logo [22]; ORCiD logo [23]; ORCiD logo [24];  [25];  [19];  [26]; ORCiD logo [27]; ORCiD logo [28];  [29];  [26];  [30]; ORCiD logo [19];  [31];  [32];  [33];  [34]; ORCiD logo [35];  [36]; ORCiD logo [37];  [36];  [38];  [9];  [39]; ORCiD logo [40];  [41];  [42];  [43]; ORCiD logo [44];  [3];  [45];  [43];  [45];  [46]; ORCiD logo [47];  [48]; ORCiD logo [49]; ORCiD logo [32];  [50]; ORCiD logo [51];  [52]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [17];  [22]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [44];  [12] « less
  1. University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)
  2. CICERO Center for International Climate Research, Oslo (Norway)
  3. University of Exeter (United Kingdom)
  4. Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Postfach (Germany)
  5. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Luisenstr (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)
  6. Global Carbon Project, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Canberra (Australia)
  7. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research/Atmospheric Environmental Research (Germany)
  8. Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Victoria, BC (Canada)
  9. University of Miami, FL (United States); National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration/Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML), Miami, FL (United States)
  10. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich (Germany)
  11. Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, CNRS-ENS-UPMC-X, Paris (France)
  12. Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, CE Orme des Merisiers (France)
  13. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  14. Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)
  15. Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ) (Belgium)
  16. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Canberra (Australia)
  17. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  18. Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), Falmouth, MA (United States)
  19. Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)
  20. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
  21. University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Allégaten (Norway)
  22. Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom)
  23. Institute of Applied Energy (IAE), Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)
  24. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
  25. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (The Netherlands)
  26. Sorbonne Universités (UPMC, Univ Paris 06) (France)
  27. University of Bern (Switzerland)
  28. University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom); Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)
  29. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  30. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  31. Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba (Japan)
  32. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia)
  33. University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research (Norway)
  34. National Research Institute for Far Sea Fisheries, Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, Kanazawa-Ku (Japan)
  35. JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan)
  36. Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  37. Wageningen University & Research (The Netherlands); University of Groningen, Nijenborgh (The Netherlands)
  38. University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research (Norway); NORCE Norwegian Research Centre and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway)
  39. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  40. Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock (Germany)
  41. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
  42. Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United States)
  43. Centre National de Recherche Météorologique, Unite mixte de recherche 3589 Météo-France/CNRS, Toulouse (France)
  44. Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany)
  45. NORCE Norwegian Research Centre and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway)
  46. GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (Germany)
  47. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (NOAA/PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States)
  48. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL), Boulder, CO (United States)
  49. Auburn Univ., AL (United States)
  50. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)
  51. Wageningen University & Research (The Netherlands)
  52. Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
OSTI Identifier:
1502552
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; SC0000016323; FC03-97ER62402; SC0012972
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Earth System Science Data (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1866-3516
Publisher:
Copernicus
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES

Citation Formats

Le Quéré, Corinne, Andrew, Robbie M., Friedlingstein, Pierre, Sitch, Stephen, Hauck, Judith, Pongratz, Julia, Pickers, Penelope A., Korsbakken, Jan Ivar, Peters, Glen P., Canadell, Josep G., Arneth, Almut, Arora, Vivek K., Barbero, Leticia, Bastos, Ana, Bopp, Laurent, Chevallier, Frédéric, Chini, Louise P., Ciais, Philippe, Doney, Scott C., Gkritzalis, Thanos, Goll, Daniel S., Harris, Ian, Haverd, Vanessa, Hoffman, Forrest M., Hoppema, Mario, Houghton, Richard A., Hurtt, George, Ilyina, Tatiana, Jain, Atul K., Johannessen, Truls, Jones, Chris D., Kato, Etsushi, Keeling, Ralph F., Goldewijk, Kees Klein, Landschützer, Peter, Lefèvre, Nathalie, Lienert, Sebastian, Liu, Zhu, Lombardozzi, Danica, Metzl, Nicolas, Munro, David R., Nabel, Julia E. M. S., Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro, Neill, Craig, Olsen, Are, Ono, Tsueno, Patra, Prabir, Peregon, Anna, Peters, Wouter, Peylin, Philippe, Pfeil, Benjamin, Pierrot, Denis, Poulter, Benjamin, Rehder, Gregor, Resplandy, Laure, Robertson, Eddy, Rocher, Matthias, Rödenbeck, Christian, Schuster, Ute, Schwinger, Jörg, Séférian, Roland, Skjelvan, Ingunn, Steinhoff, Tobias, Sutton, Adrienne, Tans, Pieter P., Tian, Hanqin, Tilbrook, Bronte, Tubiello, Francesco N., van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T., van der Werf, Guido R., Viovy, Nicolas, Walker, Anthony P., Wiltshire, Andrew J., Wright, Rebecca, Zaehle, Sönke, and Zheng, Bo. Global Carbon Budget 2018. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.5194/essd-10-2141-2018.
Le Quéré, Corinne, Andrew, Robbie M., Friedlingstein, Pierre, Sitch, Stephen, Hauck, Judith, Pongratz, Julia, Pickers, Penelope A., Korsbakken, Jan Ivar, Peters, Glen P., Canadell, Josep G., Arneth, Almut, Arora, Vivek K., Barbero, Leticia, Bastos, Ana, Bopp, Laurent, Chevallier, Frédéric, Chini, Louise P., Ciais, Philippe, Doney, Scott C., Gkritzalis, Thanos, Goll, Daniel S., Harris, Ian, Haverd, Vanessa, Hoffman, Forrest M., Hoppema, Mario, Houghton, Richard A., Hurtt, George, Ilyina, Tatiana, Jain, Atul K., Johannessen, Truls, Jones, Chris D., Kato, Etsushi, Keeling, Ralph F., Goldewijk, Kees Klein, Landschützer, Peter, Lefèvre, Nathalie, Lienert, Sebastian, Liu, Zhu, Lombardozzi, Danica, Metzl, Nicolas, Munro, David R., Nabel, Julia E. M. S., Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro, Neill, Craig, Olsen, Are, Ono, Tsueno, Patra, Prabir, Peregon, Anna, Peters, Wouter, Peylin, Philippe, Pfeil, Benjamin, Pierrot, Denis, Poulter, Benjamin, Rehder, Gregor, Resplandy, Laure, Robertson, Eddy, Rocher, Matthias, Rödenbeck, Christian, Schuster, Ute, Schwinger, Jörg, Séférian, Roland, Skjelvan, Ingunn, Steinhoff, Tobias, Sutton, Adrienne, Tans, Pieter P., Tian, Hanqin, Tilbrook, Bronte, Tubiello, Francesco N., van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T., van der Werf, Guido R., Viovy, Nicolas, Walker, Anthony P., Wiltshire, Andrew J., Wright, Rebecca, Zaehle, Sönke, & Zheng, Bo. Global Carbon Budget 2018. United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-2141-2018
Le Quéré, Corinne, Andrew, Robbie M., Friedlingstein, Pierre, Sitch, Stephen, Hauck, Judith, Pongratz, Julia, Pickers, Penelope A., Korsbakken, Jan Ivar, Peters, Glen P., Canadell, Josep G., Arneth, Almut, Arora, Vivek K., Barbero, Leticia, Bastos, Ana, Bopp, Laurent, Chevallier, Frédéric, Chini, Louise P., Ciais, Philippe, Doney, Scott C., Gkritzalis, Thanos, Goll, Daniel S., Harris, Ian, Haverd, Vanessa, Hoffman, Forrest M., Hoppema, Mario, Houghton, Richard A., Hurtt, George, Ilyina, Tatiana, Jain, Atul K., Johannessen, Truls, Jones, Chris D., Kato, Etsushi, Keeling, Ralph F., Goldewijk, Kees Klein, Landschützer, Peter, Lefèvre, Nathalie, Lienert, Sebastian, Liu, Zhu, Lombardozzi, Danica, Metzl, Nicolas, Munro, David R., Nabel, Julia E. M. S., Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro, Neill, Craig, Olsen, Are, Ono, Tsueno, Patra, Prabir, Peregon, Anna, Peters, Wouter, Peylin, Philippe, Pfeil, Benjamin, Pierrot, Denis, Poulter, Benjamin, Rehder, Gregor, Resplandy, Laure, Robertson, Eddy, Rocher, Matthias, Rödenbeck, Christian, Schuster, Ute, Schwinger, Jörg, Séférian, Roland, Skjelvan, Ingunn, Steinhoff, Tobias, Sutton, Adrienne, Tans, Pieter P., Tian, Hanqin, Tilbrook, Bronte, Tubiello, Francesco N., van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T., van der Werf, Guido R., Viovy, Nicolas, Walker, Anthony P., Wiltshire, Andrew J., Wright, Rebecca, Zaehle, Sönke, and Zheng, Bo. 2018. "Global Carbon Budget 2018". United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-2141-2018. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1502552.
@article{osti_1502552,
title = {Global Carbon Budget 2018},
author = {Le Quéré, Corinne and Andrew, Robbie M. and Friedlingstein, Pierre and Sitch, Stephen and Hauck, Judith and Pongratz, Julia and Pickers, Penelope A. and Korsbakken, Jan Ivar and Peters, Glen P. and Canadell, Josep G. and Arneth, Almut and Arora, Vivek K. and Barbero, Leticia and Bastos, Ana and Bopp, Laurent and Chevallier, Frédéric and Chini, Louise P. and Ciais, Philippe and Doney, Scott C. and Gkritzalis, Thanos and Goll, Daniel S. and Harris, Ian and Haverd, Vanessa and Hoffman, Forrest M. and Hoppema, Mario and Houghton, Richard A. and Hurtt, George and Ilyina, Tatiana and Jain, Atul K. and Johannessen, Truls and Jones, Chris D. and Kato, Etsushi and Keeling, Ralph F. and Goldewijk, Kees Klein and Landschützer, Peter and Lefèvre, Nathalie and Lienert, Sebastian and Liu, Zhu and Lombardozzi, Danica and Metzl, Nicolas and Munro, David R. and Nabel, Julia E. M. S. and Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro and Neill, Craig and Olsen, Are and Ono, Tsueno and Patra, Prabir and Peregon, Anna and Peters, Wouter and Peylin, Philippe and Pfeil, Benjamin and Pierrot, Denis and Poulter, Benjamin and Rehder, Gregor and Resplandy, Laure and Robertson, Eddy and Rocher, Matthias and Rödenbeck, Christian and Schuster, Ute and Schwinger, Jörg and Séférian, Roland and Skjelvan, Ingunn and Steinhoff, Tobias and Sutton, Adrienne and Tans, Pieter P. and Tian, Hanqin and Tilbrook, Bronte and Tubiello, Francesco N. and van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. and van der Werf, Guido R. and Viovy, Nicolas and Walker, Anthony P. and Wiltshire, Andrew J. and Wright, Rebecca and Zaehle, Sönke and Zheng, Bo},
abstractNote = {Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components ofthe global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2emissions (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land use and land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2008–2017), EFF was9.4±0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.5±0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.7±0.02 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.4±0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.2±0.8 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of0.5 GtC yr-1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For the year 2017 alone, the growth in EFF was about 1.6 %and emissions increased to 9.9±0.5 GtC yr-1. Also for 2017,ELUC was 1.4±0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.6±0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.5±0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.8±0.8 GtC yr-1,with a BIM of 0.3 GtC. The global atmosphericCO2 concentration reached 405.0±0.1 ppm averaged over 2017.For 2018, preliminary data for the first 6–9 months indicate a renewed growth in EFF of +2.7 % (range of 1.8 % to 3.7 %) based on national emission projections for China, the US, the EU, and India and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. The analysis presented here shows that the mean and trend in the five components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period of 1959–2017,but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr-1 persist for the representation of semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. A detailed comparison among individual estimates and the introduction of a broad range of observations show (1) no consensus in the mean and trend in land-use change emissions, (2) a persistent low agreement among the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra-tropics,and (3) an apparent underestimation of the CO2 variability by ocean models, originating outside the tropics. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2018, 2016,2015a, b, 2014, 2013). All results presented here can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2018.},
doi = {10.5194/essd-10-2141-2018},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1502552}, journal = {Earth System Science Data (Online)},
issn = {1866-3516},
number = 4,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

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A synthesis of carbon in international trade
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Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the 2008–2009 global financial crisis
journal, December 2011


The challenge to keep global warming below 2 °C
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Towards real-time verification of CO2 emissions
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Global atmospheric carbon budget: results from an ensemble of atmospheric CO 2 inversions
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A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO 2 Atlas (SOCAT)
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Lower land-use emissions responsible for increased net land carbon sink during the slow warming period
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Terminology as a key uncertainty in net land use and land cover change carbon flux estimates
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Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO2 emissions
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Anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon fluxes from land to ocean
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Revision of global carbon fluxes based on a reassessment of oceanic and riverine carbon transport
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CO<sub>2</sub> flux history 1982–2001 inferred from atmospheric data using a global inversion of atmospheric transport
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Global surface-ocean p CO 2 and sea–air CO 2 flux variability from an observation-driven ocean mixed-layer scheme
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Interannual sea–air CO 2 flux variability from an observation-driven ocean mixed-layer scheme
journal, January 2014


Differences between carbon budget estimates unravelled
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Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents
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The global methane budget 2000–2012
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Effect of increasing CO 2 on the terrestrial carbon cycle
journal, December 2014


Upward revision of global fossil fuel methane emissions based on isotope database
journal, October 2016


Evaluation of NorESM-OC (versions 1 and 1.2), the ocean carbon-cycle stand-alone configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1)
journal, January 2016


Weak Northern and Strong Tropical Land Carbon Uptake from Vertical Profiles of Atmospheric CO2
journal, June 2007


Wind-driven changes in the ocean carbon sink
journal, January 2014


Corrigendum to “Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO2, and net sea–air CO2 flux over the global oceans” [Deep Sea Res. II 56 (2009) 554–577]
journal, November 2009


Causes of variation in soil carbon simulations from CMIP5 Earth system models and comparison with observations
journal, January 2013


The CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS) v1.0: implementation and global carbon balance 2001–2015
journal, January 2017


Terrestrial cycling of 13 CO 2 by photosynthesis, respiration, and biomass burning in SiBCASA
journal, January 2014


Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009)
journal, January 2010


Global fire emissions estimates during 1997–2016
journal, January 2017


Global ocean carbon uptake: magnitude, variability and trends
journal, January 2013


Projected land photosynthesis constrained by changes in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2
journal, September 2016


Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation
journal, November 2016


Carbon benefits of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen offset by nitrous oxide emissions
journal, July 2011


A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion
journal, January 2012


Global carbon budget 2014
text, January 2015


Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty
journal, January 2014


Global ocean carbon uptake: magnitude, variability and trends
journal, January 2012


Three decades of global methane sources and sinks
text, January 2013


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The emergence and evolution of Earth System Science
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The physics and ecology of mining carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by ecosystems
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Interannual variation of terrestrial carbon cycle: Issues and perspectives
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Hormonal Effects of an Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Animal Protein-Based Biostimulant (Pepton) in Water-Stressed Tomato Plants
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An Investigation of Parameter Sensitivity of Minimum Complexity Earth Simulator
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Valuing Carbon Sequestration to Finance Afforestation Projects in China
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Impact of Nonzero Intercept Gas Transfer Velocity Parameterizations on Global and Regional Ocean–Atmosphere CO2 Fluxes
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Global carbon budgets estimated from atmospheric O 2 ∕N 2 and CO 2 observations in the western Pacific region over a 15-year period
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Reviews and syntheses: influences of landscape structure and land uses on local to regional climate and air quality
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GLODAPv2.2019 – an update of GLODAPv2
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Global Carbon Budget 2019
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The Canadian Earth System Model version 5 (CanESM5.0.3)
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Pivotal Role of the Basic Character of Organic and Salt Catalysts in C−N Bond Forming Reactions of Amines with CO 2
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Synergies in offshore wind and oil industry for carbon capture and utilization
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Potential carbon loss from Scottish peatlands under climate change
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Carbonate Dissolution Enhanced by Ocean Stagnation and Respiration at the Onset of the Paleocene‐Eocene Thermal Maximum
journal, January 2019


Reassessing Southern Ocean Air‐Sea CO 2 Flux Estimates With the Addition of Biogeochemical Float Observations
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Increasing impacts of extreme droughts on vegetation productivity under climate change
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Mitigation of ozone damage to the world’s land ecosystems by source sector
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Recent divergence in the contributions of tropical and boreal forests to the terrestrial carbon sink
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Global fire emissions buffered by the production of pyrogenic carbon
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The fate of carbon in a mature forest under carbon dioxide enrichment
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Global warming has increased global economic inequality
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Decadal trends in the ocean carbon sink
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Drivers of change in China’s energy-related CO 2 emissions
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Seven Principles of Strong Climate Change Planning
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CO 2 emissions embodied in China’s export
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Meeting GHG reduction targets requires accounting for all forest sector emissions
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Greenhouse gas fluxes from reservoirs determined by watershed lithology, morphometry, and anthropogenic pressure
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Increased high‐latitude photosynthetic carbon gain offset by respiration carbon loss during an anomalous warm winter to spring transition
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Global change biology: A primer
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Measuring the success of climate change adaptation and mitigation in terrestrial ecosystems
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Economic Dimension of the Climate Challenge to Russia’s Sustainable Development
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A generalized approach for selecting solar energy system configurations for a wide range of applications
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Analysis of temporal and spatial variability of atmospheric CO2 concentration within Paris from the GreenLITE™ laser imaging experiment
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Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning – an updated assessment
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Insights from year-long measurements of air–water CH4 and CO2 exchange in a coastal environment
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Inter‐annual simulation of global carbon cycle variations in a terrestrial–aquatic continuum
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Can plants help us avoid seeding a human‐made climate catastrophe?
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Detecting Regional Modes of Variability in Observation‐Based Surface Ocean p CO 2
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UKESM1: Description and Evaluation of the U.K. Earth System Model
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Decadal acidification in Atlantic and Mediterranean water masses exchanging at the Strait of Gibraltar
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Rational design of tailored porous carbon-based materials for CO 2 capture
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Novel amine functionalized metal organic framework synthesis for enhanced carbon dioxide capture
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State of the science in reconciling top‐down and bottom‐up approaches for terrestrial CO 2 budget
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Methane Emission Estimates by the Global High-Resolution Inverse Model Using National Inventories
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Identification of Enablers and Barriers for Public Bike Share System Adoption using Social Media and Statistical Models
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