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Title: Laboratory strains of Bacillus anthracis exhibit pervasive alteration in expression of proteins related to sporulation under laboratory conditions relative to genetically related wild strains

Abstract

The spore forming pathogen Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax in humans and animals. It cycles through infected hosts as vegetative cells and is eventually introduced into the environment where it generates an endospore resistant to many harsh conditions. The endospores are subsequently taken up by another host to begin the next cycle. Outbreaks of anthrax occur regularly worldwide in wildlife and livestock, and the potential for human infection exists whenever humans encounter infected animals. It is also possible to encounter intentional releases of anthrax spores, as was the case in October 2001. Consequently, it is important to be able to rapidly establish the provenance of infectious strains of B. anthracis. Here, we compare protein expression in seven low-passage wild isolates and four laboratory strains of B. anthracis grown under identical conditions using LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis. Of the 1,023 total identified proteins, 96 had significant abundance differences between wild and laboratory strains. Of those, 28 proteins directly related to sporulation were upregulated in wild isolates, with expression driven by Spo0A, CodY, and AbrB/ScoC. In addition, we observed evidence of changes in cell division and fatty acid biosynthesis between the two classes of strains, despite being grown under identicalmore » experimental conditions. These results suggest wild B. anthracis cells are more highly tuned to sporulate than their laboratory cousins, and this difference should be exploited as a method to differentiate between laboratory and low passage wild strains isolated during an anthrax outbreak. This knowledge should distinguish between intentional releases and exposure to strains in nature, providing a basis for the type of response by public health officials and investigators.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
  3. Loyola Univ., Chicago, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1497065
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-137549
Journal ID: ISSN 1932-6203
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
PLoS ONE
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher:
Public Library of Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Bacillus anthracis

Citation Formats

Leiser, Owen P., Blackburn, Jason K., Hadfield, Ted L., Kreuzer, Helen W., Wunschel, David S., Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J., and Driks, Adam. Laboratory strains of Bacillus anthracis exhibit pervasive alteration in expression of proteins related to sporulation under laboratory conditions relative to genetically related wild strains. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209120.
Leiser, Owen P., Blackburn, Jason K., Hadfield, Ted L., Kreuzer, Helen W., Wunschel, David S., Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J., & Driks, Adam. Laboratory strains of Bacillus anthracis exhibit pervasive alteration in expression of proteins related to sporulation under laboratory conditions relative to genetically related wild strains. United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209120.
Leiser, Owen P., Blackburn, Jason K., Hadfield, Ted L., Kreuzer, Helen W., Wunschel, David S., Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J., and Driks, Adam. Mon . "Laboratory strains of Bacillus anthracis exhibit pervasive alteration in expression of proteins related to sporulation under laboratory conditions relative to genetically related wild strains". United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209120. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1497065.
@article{osti_1497065,
title = {Laboratory strains of Bacillus anthracis exhibit pervasive alteration in expression of proteins related to sporulation under laboratory conditions relative to genetically related wild strains},
author = {Leiser, Owen P. and Blackburn, Jason K. and Hadfield, Ted L. and Kreuzer, Helen W. and Wunschel, David S. and Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J. and Driks, Adam},
abstractNote = {The spore forming pathogen Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax in humans and animals. It cycles through infected hosts as vegetative cells and is eventually introduced into the environment where it generates an endospore resistant to many harsh conditions. The endospores are subsequently taken up by another host to begin the next cycle. Outbreaks of anthrax occur regularly worldwide in wildlife and livestock, and the potential for human infection exists whenever humans encounter infected animals. It is also possible to encounter intentional releases of anthrax spores, as was the case in October 2001. Consequently, it is important to be able to rapidly establish the provenance of infectious strains of B. anthracis. Here, we compare protein expression in seven low-passage wild isolates and four laboratory strains of B. anthracis grown under identical conditions using LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis. Of the 1,023 total identified proteins, 96 had significant abundance differences between wild and laboratory strains. Of those, 28 proteins directly related to sporulation were upregulated in wild isolates, with expression driven by Spo0A, CodY, and AbrB/ScoC. In addition, we observed evidence of changes in cell division and fatty acid biosynthesis between the two classes of strains, despite being grown under identical experimental conditions. These results suggest wild B. anthracis cells are more highly tuned to sporulate than their laboratory cousins, and this difference should be exploited as a method to differentiate between laboratory and low passage wild strains isolated during an anthrax outbreak. This knowledge should distinguish between intentional releases and exposure to strains in nature, providing a basis for the type of response by public health officials and investigators.},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0209120},
journal = {PLoS ONE},
issn = {1932-6203},
number = 12,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Fig 1. Fig 1. : Principal coordinate analysis of protein abundance of all proteins identified in this study. Protein abundance values for wild (red) and laboratory (blue) strains of B. anthracis were averaged by strain prior to analysis.

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.