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Title: Complete Status Report Documenting the Development of Friction Stir Welding for Producing a Butt Joint in Thin Wall Tubing of ODS Alloys

Abstract

A challenging attempt using friction stir welding to produce a butt joint between two 1.0 mm thick plates of 14YWT was nearly successful. The modified tool pin mostly penetrated the thickness of the adjoined thin plate samples resulting in a small blunt notch on the bottom surface of the butt joint. A bend occurred in the thin plate sample due to formation of stresses from clamping the thin plate sample during FSW. The peak displacement of the bend occurred along the center line of the butt joint. The weld zone showed good microstructure mixing with some flashing mostly on the retreating side that suggested excess heat input by friction between the traveling and spinning tool pin and thin plates of 14YWT. Neutron diffraction experiments were performed on the bent sample of 14YWT to measure the residual stresses in the butt joint on the HB-2B beam line at the Neutron Residual Stress Facility at HFIR. However, the neutron scattering to background noise ratio was very low during data acquisition. Measurements of lattice strains were obtained in the rolling (RD) and normal (ND) directions but not in the extrusion direction (ED) of the thin plate sample. Unfortunately, the quality of the datamore » was not sufficient for determining the residual stresses in the butt joint. From the previous neutron scattering experiments conducted on four hot rolled plates (R1, R2, R3 and R4) of 14YWT, the residual stresses were calculated from lattice strain data and plotted in 2-D color contour maps for ED, RD and ND. The results showed variations in the magnitude and spatial position of residual stresses in the microstructure of the four plates. The magnitude in residual stresses in ED and RD increased gradually with increasing rolling deformation for R1 (50%) to R2 (76%), followed by larger increases in R3 (89%) and R4 (95%). The maximum peaks in residual stresses for R4 was ~710-730 MPa in ED and RD. The residual stresses in ND were below ~300 MPa for each of the 4 rolled plates, with a maximum residual stress in R4 (95%) of ~400 MPa. These results indicated that significant residual stresses representing ~57% of the yield stress of 14YWT (SM13) had accumulated in the 14YWT plate after hot rolling to the 1 mm thickness, which was used in the FSW experiments. The microstructure analysis of the 1.0 mm thick plate of 14YWT containing the butt joint produced by FSW revealed significant changes in the grain structure and texture between the unaffected zone (UZ) of the rolled plate and the butt joint weld. In the UZ, the grains were severely elongated after 95% deformation and mainly possessed the {101} texture component in the ED. Two predominant grain misorientation angles were observed: one consisting of small misorientations of <5º between highly elongated grains and the other consisting of large misorientations of >15º in pockets of small grains that might have formed by dynamic recrystallization processes during rolling of the plate at 1000ºC. The morphology and texture of grains in the heat affected zone (HAZ) were similar to those in UZ, except the grains had coarsened due to excess heat input during FSZ. A population of pores formed and the grains both coarsened and changed to isotropic morphology in the microstructure of the butt joint on both the advancing and retreating sides. The texture of grains in both regions were randomly orientated between the 3 poles {001}, {101} and {111}. The main difference in texture of grains between the advancing side and retreating side was with the misorientation angles of neighboring grains. Most of the grains in the advancing side had misorientation angles of >5º indicating that these grains experienced recrystallization. On the retreating side, areas containing larger grains showed high misorientation angles of >15º compared to areas appearing as bands of grains with misorientation angles of <5º and between 5º-15º. Numerous small pockets of grains with low misorientation angles of <5º were distributed in the microstructure among the grains showing high misorientation angles of >15º. It was determined that the grains associated with low misorientation angles contained sub-grain structures, which was consistent with both recrystallization and recovery mechanisms for grains located on the retreating side of the butt joint. These results demonstrate the complex microstructure that evolves in the microstructure of 14YWT resulting from the input of high temperatures and severe deformations during FSW.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1492167
Report Number(s):
ORNL/LTR-2018/929
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Hoelzer, David T., Massey, Caleb P., Fancher, Christopher M., and Tang, Wei. Complete Status Report Documenting the Development of Friction Stir Welding for Producing a Butt Joint in Thin Wall Tubing of ODS Alloys. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1492167.
Hoelzer, David T., Massey, Caleb P., Fancher, Christopher M., & Tang, Wei. Complete Status Report Documenting the Development of Friction Stir Welding for Producing a Butt Joint in Thin Wall Tubing of ODS Alloys. United States. doi:10.2172/1492167.
Hoelzer, David T., Massey, Caleb P., Fancher, Christopher M., and Tang, Wei. Fri . "Complete Status Report Documenting the Development of Friction Stir Welding for Producing a Butt Joint in Thin Wall Tubing of ODS Alloys". United States. doi:10.2172/1492167. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1492167.
@article{osti_1492167,
title = {Complete Status Report Documenting the Development of Friction Stir Welding for Producing a Butt Joint in Thin Wall Tubing of ODS Alloys},
author = {Hoelzer, David T. and Massey, Caleb P. and Fancher, Christopher M. and Tang, Wei},
abstractNote = {A challenging attempt using friction stir welding to produce a butt joint between two 1.0 mm thick plates of 14YWT was nearly successful. The modified tool pin mostly penetrated the thickness of the adjoined thin plate samples resulting in a small blunt notch on the bottom surface of the butt joint. A bend occurred in the thin plate sample due to formation of stresses from clamping the thin plate sample during FSW. The peak displacement of the bend occurred along the center line of the butt joint. The weld zone showed good microstructure mixing with some flashing mostly on the retreating side that suggested excess heat input by friction between the traveling and spinning tool pin and thin plates of 14YWT. Neutron diffraction experiments were performed on the bent sample of 14YWT to measure the residual stresses in the butt joint on the HB-2B beam line at the Neutron Residual Stress Facility at HFIR. However, the neutron scattering to background noise ratio was very low during data acquisition. Measurements of lattice strains were obtained in the rolling (RD) and normal (ND) directions but not in the extrusion direction (ED) of the thin plate sample. Unfortunately, the quality of the data was not sufficient for determining the residual stresses in the butt joint. From the previous neutron scattering experiments conducted on four hot rolled plates (R1, R2, R3 and R4) of 14YWT, the residual stresses were calculated from lattice strain data and plotted in 2-D color contour maps for ED, RD and ND. The results showed variations in the magnitude and spatial position of residual stresses in the microstructure of the four plates. The magnitude in residual stresses in ED and RD increased gradually with increasing rolling deformation for R1 (50%) to R2 (76%), followed by larger increases in R3 (89%) and R4 (95%). The maximum peaks in residual stresses for R4 was ~710-730 MPa in ED and RD. The residual stresses in ND were below ~300 MPa for each of the 4 rolled plates, with a maximum residual stress in R4 (95%) of ~400 MPa. These results indicated that significant residual stresses representing ~57% of the yield stress of 14YWT (SM13) had accumulated in the 14YWT plate after hot rolling to the 1 mm thickness, which was used in the FSW experiments. The microstructure analysis of the 1.0 mm thick plate of 14YWT containing the butt joint produced by FSW revealed significant changes in the grain structure and texture between the unaffected zone (UZ) of the rolled plate and the butt joint weld. In the UZ, the grains were severely elongated after 95% deformation and mainly possessed the {101} texture component in the ED. Two predominant grain misorientation angles were observed: one consisting of small misorientations of <5º between highly elongated grains and the other consisting of large misorientations of >15º in pockets of small grains that might have formed by dynamic recrystallization processes during rolling of the plate at 1000ºC. The morphology and texture of grains in the heat affected zone (HAZ) were similar to those in UZ, except the grains had coarsened due to excess heat input during FSZ. A population of pores formed and the grains both coarsened and changed to isotropic morphology in the microstructure of the butt joint on both the advancing and retreating sides. The texture of grains in both regions were randomly orientated between the 3 poles {001}, {101} and {111}. The main difference in texture of grains between the advancing side and retreating side was with the misorientation angles of neighboring grains. Most of the grains in the advancing side had misorientation angles of >5º indicating that these grains experienced recrystallization. On the retreating side, areas containing larger grains showed high misorientation angles of >15º compared to areas appearing as bands of grains with misorientation angles of <5º and between 5º-15º. Numerous small pockets of grains with low misorientation angles of <5º were distributed in the microstructure among the grains showing high misorientation angles of >15º. It was determined that the grains associated with low misorientation angles contained sub-grain structures, which was consistent with both recrystallization and recovery mechanisms for grains located on the retreating side of the butt joint. These results demonstrate the complex microstructure that evolves in the microstructure of 14YWT resulting from the input of high temperatures and severe deformations during FSW.},
doi = {10.2172/1492167},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

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