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Title: Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials with active electrical control

Abstract

Here, we present a study of an electrically modulated nonlinear metamaterial consisting of an array of split-ring resonators fabricated on n-type gallium arsenide. The resonant metamaterial nonlinearity appears as an intensity-dependent transmission minimum at terahertz frequencies and arises from the interaction between local electric fields in the split-ring resonator (SRR) capacitive gaps and charge carriers in the n-type substrate. We investigate the active tuning range of the metamaterial device as the incident terahertz field intensity is increased and conversely the effect of an applied DC bias on the terahertz field-induced nonlinear modulation of the metamaterial response. Applying a DC bias to the metamaterial sample alters the nonlinear response and reduces the net nonlinear modulation. Similarly, increasing the incident terahertz field intensity decreases the net modulation induced by an applied DC bias. Finally, we interpret these results in terms of DC and terahertz-field-assisted carrier acceleration, scattering, and multiplication processes, highlighting the unique nature of this DC-field modulated terahertz nonlinearity.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [4];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [2]
  1. Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). School of Engineering; Washington College, Chestertown, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics
  2. Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). School of Engineering
  3. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
  4. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  5. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); US Army Research Office (ARO); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1477886
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1392709
Report Number(s):
SAND-2018-9641J
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951; 667550
Grant/Contract Number:  
NA0003525; AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 111; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Keiser, G. R., Karl, N., Liu, P. Q., Tulloss, C., Chen, H. -T., Taylor, A. J., Brener, I., Reno, J. L., and Mittleman, D. M. Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials with active electrical control. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4990671.
Keiser, G. R., Karl, N., Liu, P. Q., Tulloss, C., Chen, H. -T., Taylor, A. J., Brener, I., Reno, J. L., & Mittleman, D. M. Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials with active electrical control. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4990671.
Keiser, G. R., Karl, N., Liu, P. Q., Tulloss, C., Chen, H. -T., Taylor, A. J., Brener, I., Reno, J. L., and Mittleman, D. M. Tue . "Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials with active electrical control". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4990671. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1477886.
@article{osti_1477886,
title = {Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials with active electrical control},
author = {Keiser, G. R. and Karl, N. and Liu, P. Q. and Tulloss, C. and Chen, H. -T. and Taylor, A. J. and Brener, I. and Reno, J. L. and Mittleman, D. M.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present a study of an electrically modulated nonlinear metamaterial consisting of an array of split-ring resonators fabricated on n-type gallium arsenide. The resonant metamaterial nonlinearity appears as an intensity-dependent transmission minimum at terahertz frequencies and arises from the interaction between local electric fields in the split-ring resonator (SRR) capacitive gaps and charge carriers in the n-type substrate. We investigate the active tuning range of the metamaterial device as the incident terahertz field intensity is increased and conversely the effect of an applied DC bias on the terahertz field-induced nonlinear modulation of the metamaterial response. Applying a DC bias to the metamaterial sample alters the nonlinear response and reduces the net nonlinear modulation. Similarly, increasing the incident terahertz field intensity decreases the net modulation induced by an applied DC bias. Finally, we interpret these results in terms of DC and terahertz-field-assisted carrier acceleration, scattering, and multiplication processes, highlighting the unique nature of this DC-field modulated terahertz nonlinearity.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4990671},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 12,
volume = 111,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Sep 19 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Sep 19 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Active terahertz metamaterial devices
journal, November 2006

  • Chen, Hou-Tong; Padilla, Willie J.; Zide, Joshua M. O.
  • Nature, Vol. 444, Issue 7119, p. 597-600
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05343