skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Comparison of Big-Leaf, Two-Big-Leaf, and Two-Leaf Upscaling Schemes for Evapotranspiration Estimation Using Coupled Carbon-Water Modeling: Use Two-Leaf Scheme for ET Modeling

Abstract

Evapotranspiration (ET) is commonly estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation, which assumes that the plant canopy is a big leaf (BL) and the water flux from vegetation is regulated by canopy stomatal conductance (G s). However, BL has been found to be unsuitable for terrestrial biosphere models built on the carbon-water coupling principle because it fails to capture daily variations of gross primary productivity (GPP). A two-big-leaf scheme (TBL) and a two-leaf scheme (TL) that stratify a canopy into sunlit and shaded leaves have been developed to address this issue. However, there is a lack of comparison of these upscaling schemes for ET estimation, especially on the difference between TBL and TL. We find that TL shows strong performance (r 2 = 0.71, root-mean-square error = 0.05 mm/h) in estimating ET at nine eddy covariance towers in Canada. BL simulates lower annual ET and GPP than TL and TBL. The biases of estimated ET and GPP increase with leaf area index (LAI) in BL and TBL, and the biases of TL show no trends with LAI. BL miscalculates the portions of light-saturated and light-unsaturated leaves in the canopy, incurring negative biases in its flux estimation. TBL and TL showed improved yet different GPP and ET estimations.more » This difference is attributed to the lower Gsand intercellular CO 2 concentration simulated in TBL compared to their counterparts in TL. Finally, we suggest to use TL for ET modeling to avoid the uncertainty propagated from the artificial upscaling of leaf-level processes to the canopy scale in BL and TBL.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1476596
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-8953
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

None, None. Comparison of Big-Leaf, Two-Big-Leaf, and Two-Leaf Upscaling Schemes for Evapotranspiration Estimation Using Coupled Carbon-Water Modeling: Use Two-Leaf Scheme for ET Modeling. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JG003978.
None, None. Comparison of Big-Leaf, Two-Big-Leaf, and Two-Leaf Upscaling Schemes for Evapotranspiration Estimation Using Coupled Carbon-Water Modeling: Use Two-Leaf Scheme for ET Modeling. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JG003978.
None, None. Tue . "Comparison of Big-Leaf, Two-Big-Leaf, and Two-Leaf Upscaling Schemes for Evapotranspiration Estimation Using Coupled Carbon-Water Modeling: Use Two-Leaf Scheme for ET Modeling". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JG003978. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1476596.
@article{osti_1476596,
title = {Comparison of Big-Leaf, Two-Big-Leaf, and Two-Leaf Upscaling Schemes for Evapotranspiration Estimation Using Coupled Carbon-Water Modeling: Use Two-Leaf Scheme for ET Modeling},
author = {None, None},
abstractNote = {Evapotranspiration (ET) is commonly estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation, which assumes that the plant canopy is a big leaf (BL) and the water flux from vegetation is regulated by canopy stomatal conductance (Gs). However, BL has been found to be unsuitable for terrestrial biosphere models built on the carbon-water coupling principle because it fails to capture daily variations of gross primary productivity (GPP). A two-big-leaf scheme (TBL) and a two-leaf scheme (TL) that stratify a canopy into sunlit and shaded leaves have been developed to address this issue. However, there is a lack of comparison of these upscaling schemes for ET estimation, especially on the difference between TBL and TL. We find that TL shows strong performance (r2 = 0.71, root-mean-square error = 0.05 mm/h) in estimating ET at nine eddy covariance towers in Canada. BL simulates lower annual ET and GPP than TL and TBL. The biases of estimated ET and GPP increase with leaf area index (LAI) in BL and TBL, and the biases of TL show no trends with LAI. BL miscalculates the portions of light-saturated and light-unsaturated leaves in the canopy, incurring negative biases in its flux estimation. TBL and TL showed improved yet different GPP and ET estimations. This difference is attributed to the lower Gsand intercellular CO2 concentration simulated in TBL compared to their counterparts in TL. Finally, we suggest to use TL for ET modeling to avoid the uncertainty propagated from the artificial upscaling of leaf-level processes to the canopy scale in BL and TBL.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JG003978},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences},
issn = {2169-8953},
number = 1,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Schematic descriptions of the three upscaling schemes: BL, TBL, and TL. In reality, gs of each leaf is different. BL integrates gs into Gs; TBL integrates gs into Gs for sunlit and shaded leaves, respectively; TL uses the average of gs of each leaf group and avoids themore » calculation of Gs.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Canopy reflectance, photosynthesis, and transpiration. III. A reanalysis using improved leaf models and a new canopy integration scheme.
journal, December 1992


A Two-Big-Leaf Model for Canopy Temperature, Photosynthesis, and Stomatal Conductance
journal, June 2004


Scaling CO2-photosynthesis relationships from the leaf to the canopy
journal, March 1994


Simple scaling of photosynthesis from leaves to canopies without the errors of big-leaf models
journal, May 1997


Effects of elevated [CO2] on photosynthesis in European forest species: a meta-analysis of model parameters: Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2
journal, December 1999


Combining the Penman-Monteith equation with measurements of surface temperature and reflectance to estimate evaporation rates of semiarid grassland
journal, July 1996


Mapping evapotranspiration based on remote sensing: An application to Canada's landmass: MAPPING ET OVER CANADIAN LANDMASS IN 1 KM GRIDS
journal, July 2003

  • Liu, J.; Chen, J. M.; Cihlar, J.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 39, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002WR001680

Improvements to a MODIS global terrestrial evapotranspiration algorithm
journal, August 2011

  • Mu, Qiaozhen; Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steven W.
  • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 115, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2011.02.019

Distributed hydrological model for mapping evapotranspiration using remote sensing inputs
journal, April 2005


Earth's Global Energy Budget
journal, March 2009

  • Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Kiehl, Jeffrey
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 90, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008BAMS2634.1

Remote sensing-based ecosystem–atmosphere simulation scheme (EASS)—Model formulation and test with multiple-year data
journal, December 2007


A Comparison of a Hierarchy of Models for Determining Energy Balance Components over Vegetation Canopies
journal, October 1995


Improved global simulations of gross primary product based on a separate and explicit treatment of diffuse and direct sunlight
journal, January 2007

  • Alton, P. B.; Ellis, R.; Los, S. O.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, Issue D7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006JD008022

Photosynthetic responses to altitude: an explanation based on optimality principles
journal, November 2016

  • Wang, Han; Prentice, I. Colin; Davis, Tyler W.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 213, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.14332

Effects of foliage clumping on the estimation of global terrestrial gross primary productivity: FOLIAGE CLUMPING EFFECT ON GLOBAL GPP
journal, March 2012

  • Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Pisek, Jan
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 26, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003996

Conversion of canopy intercepted radiation to photosynthate: review of modelling approaches for regional scales
journal, January 2003

  • Medlyn, Belinda; Barrett, Damian; Landsberg, Joe
  • Functional Plant Biology, Vol. 30, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1071/FP02088

Modelling multi-year coupled carbon and water fluxes in a boreal aspen forest
journal, November 2006


Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO 2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models
journal, April 2001


Boreal forest CO 2 exchange and evapotranspiration predicted by nine ecosystem process models: Intermodel comparisons and relationships to field measurements
journal, December 2001

  • Amthor, J. S.; Chen, J. M.; Clein, J. S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 106, Issue D24
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JD900850

Source approach for estimating soil and vegetation energy fluxes in observations of directional radiometric surface temperature
journal, December 1995


Modelling canopy CO 2 fluxes: are ‘big-leaf’ simplifications justified?
journal, November 2001


Reconciling the optimal and empirical approaches to modelling stomatal conductance: RECONCILING OPTIMAL AND EMPIRICAL STOMATAL MODELS
journal, January 2011


Simulation and scaling of temporal variation in gross primary production for coniferous and deciduous temperate forests
journal, January 2004


Development and Evaluation of Simplified Models for Simulating Canopy Photosynthesis and Transpiration
journal, December 1976

  • Sinclair, T. R.; Murphy, C. E.; Knoerr, K. R.
  • The Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 13, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.2307/2402257

Global clumping index map derived from the MODIS BRDF product
journal, April 2012


Modelling Stomatal Behaviour and and Photosynthesis of Eucalyptus grandis
journal, January 1990


Assessing Tower Flux Footprint Climatology and Scaling Between Remotely Sensed and Eddy Covariance Measurements
journal, December 2008

  • Chen, Baozhang; Black, T. Andrew; Coops, Nicholas C.
  • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 130, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-008-9339-1

Scaling carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange from leaf to canopy in a deciduous forest. II. Model testing and application
journal, October 1995


An analytical solution for coupled leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance models
journal, July 1994


Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, conductance and transpiration: scaling from leaves to canopies
journal, October 1995


A two-leaf model for canopy conductance, photosynthesis and partitioning of available energy I:
journal, May 1998


Net ecosystem production in a temperate pine plantation in southeastern Canada
journal, February 2005


Maximum conductances for evaporation from global vegetation types
journal, February 1995


Modelling surface conductance of pine forest
journal, June 1988


Global Hydrological Cycles and World Water Resources
journal, August 2006


Soil Thermal Emissivity as Affected by its Water Content and Surface Treatment
journal, January 1989


Evapotranspiration models with canopy resistance for use in climate models, a review
journal, April 1991

  • Dickinson, Robert E.; Henderson-Sellers, Ann; Rosenzweig, Cynthia
  • Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 54, Issue 2-4
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-1923(91)90014-H

A distributed hydrology-vegetation model for complex terrain
journal, June 1994

  • Wigmosta, Mark S.; Vail, Lance W.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 30, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/94WR00436

Global estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water balance model
journal, September 2012


Leaf area index measurements at Fluxnet-Canada forest sites
journal, November 2006


Investigations with a higher-order canopy turbulence model into mean source-sink levels and bulk canopy resistances
journal, September 1989


Continuous observation of leaf area index at Fluxnet-Canada sites
journal, June 2014


Surface energy balance closure by the eddy-covariance method above three boreal forest stands and implications for the measurement of the CO2 flux
journal, November 2006


Comparison of carbon dioxide fluxes over three boreal black spruce forests in Canada
journal, January 2007


Daily canopy photosynthesis model through temporal and spatial scaling for remote sensing applications
journal, December 1999


Evaluation of leaf-to-canopy upscaling methodologies against carbon flux data in North America: GPP, BIG-LEAF, TWO-LEAF, CLUMPING INDEX
journal, February 2012

  • Sprintsin, Michael; Chen, Jing M.; Desai, Ankur
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 117, Issue G1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JG001407

Inter-annual variability in the leaf area index of a boreal aspen-hazelnut forest in relation to net ecosystem production
journal, November 2004


Studies on the measurements of crop emissivity and sky temperature
journal, December 1989


Leaf area index of boreal forests: Theory, techniques, and measurements
journal, December 1997

  • Chen, Jing M.; Rich, Paul M.; Gower, Stith T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 102, Issue D24
  • DOI: 10.1029/97JD01107

Biometric and eddy-covariance based estimates of carbon fluxes in an age-sequence of temperate pine forests
journal, July 2010


Optimization of water uptake and photosynthetic parameters in an ecosystem model using tower flux data
journal, December 2014


Comparison of boreal ecosystem model sensitivity to variability in climate and forest site parameters
journal, December 2001

  • Potter, Christopher S.; Wang, Shusen; Nikolov, Ned T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 106, Issue D24
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JD000224

A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species
journal, June 1980

  • Farquhar, G. D.; von Caemmerer, S.; Berry, J. A.
  • Planta, Vol. 149, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00386231

Trends of carbon fluxes and climate over a mixed temperate–boreal transition forest in southern Ontario, Canada
journal, October 2015


Seasonal variation of photosynthetic model parameters and leaf area index from global Fluxnet eddy covariance data
journal, January 2011

  • Groenendijk, M.; Dolman, A. J.; Ammann, C.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue G4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JG001742

Modeling CO 2 and water vapor turbulent flux distributions within a forest canopy
journal, November 2000

  • Lai, Chun-Ta; Katul, Gabriel; Oren, Ram
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 105, Issue D21
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JD900468

Simulations of canopy net photosynthesis and transpiration in Quercus ilex L. under the influence of seasonal drought
journal, February 1996


Soil Water Characteristic Estimates by Texture and Organic Matter for Hydrologic Solutions
journal, January 2006

  • Saxton, K. E.; Rawls, W. J.
  • Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 70, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2005.0117

A Simple Biosphere Model (SIB) for Use within General Circulation Models
journal, March 1986


Testing the robustness of predictive models for chlorophyll generated from spaceborne imaging spectroscopy data for a mixedwood boreal forest canopy
journal, November 2013

  • Gökkaya, Kemal; Thomas, Valerie; Noland, Thomas
  • International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 35, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2013.866291