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Title: The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scatteringa)

Abstract

We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Finally, showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [6]; ORCiD logo [8];  [6];  [5];  [9];  [10];  [3];  [9];  [9];  [9];  [9];  [11];  [11] more »;  [12];  [9];  [9];  [6];  [8]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3];  [9];  [12];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [9];  [3]; ORCiD logo [8];  [3];  [4];  [9];  [3];  [7] « less
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  2. Max-Planck-Inst. fur Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden (Germany)
  3. Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fur Kernphysik
  4. Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom). Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Dept. of Physics
  5. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  6. GSI-Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)
  7. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  8. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL), Central Laser Facility
  9. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  10. Helmholtz-Inst. Jena, Jena (Germany)
  11. Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics
  12. Queen’s Univ., Belfast (United States). Centre for Plasma Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1466943
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-755891
Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X; PHPAEN; 942428
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Kraus, D., Vorberger, J., Helfrich, J., Gericke, D. O., Bachmann, B., Bagnoud, V., Barbrel, B., Blažević, A., Carroll, D. C., Cayzac, W., Döppner, T., Fletcher, L. B., Frank, A., Frydrych, S., Gamboa, E. J., Gauthier, M., Göde, S., Granados, E., Gregori, G., Hartley, N. J., Kettle, B., Lee, H. J., Nagler, B., Neumayer, P., Notley, M. M., Ortner, A., Otten, A., Ravasio, A., Riley, D., Roth, F., Schaumann, G., Schumacher, D., Schumaker, W., Siegenthaler, K., Spindloe, C., Wagner, F., Wünsch, K., Glenzer, S. H., Roth, M., and Falcone, R. W. The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scatteringa). United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4920943.
Kraus, D., Vorberger, J., Helfrich, J., Gericke, D. O., Bachmann, B., Bagnoud, V., Barbrel, B., Blažević, A., Carroll, D. C., Cayzac, W., Döppner, T., Fletcher, L. B., Frank, A., Frydrych, S., Gamboa, E. J., Gauthier, M., Göde, S., Granados, E., Gregori, G., Hartley, N. J., Kettle, B., Lee, H. J., Nagler, B., Neumayer, P., Notley, M. M., Ortner, A., Otten, A., Ravasio, A., Riley, D., Roth, F., Schaumann, G., Schumacher, D., Schumaker, W., Siegenthaler, K., Spindloe, C., Wagner, F., Wünsch, K., Glenzer, S. H., Roth, M., & Falcone, R. W. The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scatteringa). United States. doi:10.1063/1.4920943.
Kraus, D., Vorberger, J., Helfrich, J., Gericke, D. O., Bachmann, B., Bagnoud, V., Barbrel, B., Blažević, A., Carroll, D. C., Cayzac, W., Döppner, T., Fletcher, L. B., Frank, A., Frydrych, S., Gamboa, E. J., Gauthier, M., Göde, S., Granados, E., Gregori, G., Hartley, N. J., Kettle, B., Lee, H. J., Nagler, B., Neumayer, P., Notley, M. M., Ortner, A., Otten, A., Ravasio, A., Riley, D., Roth, F., Schaumann, G., Schumacher, D., Schumaker, W., Siegenthaler, K., Spindloe, C., Wagner, F., Wünsch, K., Glenzer, S. H., Roth, M., and Falcone, R. W. Fri . "The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scatteringa)". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4920943. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1466943.
@article{osti_1466943,
title = {The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scatteringa)},
author = {Kraus, D. and Vorberger, J. and Helfrich, J. and Gericke, D. O. and Bachmann, B. and Bagnoud, V. and Barbrel, B. and Blažević, A. and Carroll, D. C. and Cayzac, W. and Döppner, T. and Fletcher, L. B. and Frank, A. and Frydrych, S. and Gamboa, E. J. and Gauthier, M. and Göde, S. and Granados, E. and Gregori, G. and Hartley, N. J. and Kettle, B. and Lee, H. J. and Nagler, B. and Neumayer, P. and Notley, M. M. and Ortner, A. and Otten, A. and Ravasio, A. and Riley, D. and Roth, F. and Schaumann, G. and Schumacher, D. and Schumaker, W. and Siegenthaler, K. and Spindloe, C. and Wagner, F. and Wünsch, K. and Glenzer, S. H. and Roth, M. and Falcone, R. W.},
abstractNote = {We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Finally, showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4920943},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 5,
volume = 22,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Fri May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Ab initiomolecular dynamics for liquid metals
journal, January 1993


Efficiency of ab-initio total energy calculations for metals and semiconductors using a plane-wave basis set
journal, July 1996


Efficient iterative schemes for ab initio total-energy calculations using a plane-wave basis set
journal, October 1996


Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulation of the liquid-metal–amorphous-semiconductor transition in germanium
journal, May 1994