# Relativistic analogue of the Newtonian fluid energy equation with nucleosynthesis

## Abstract

In Newtonian fluid dynamics simulations in which composition has been tracked by a nuclear reaction network, energy generation due to composition changes has generally been handled as a separate source term in the energy equation. Here, a relativistic equation in conservative form for total fluid energy, obtained from the spacetime divergence of the stress-energy tensor, in principle encompasses such energy generation; but it is not explicitly manifest. An alternative relativistic energy equation in conservative form—in which the nuclear energy generation appears explicitly, and that reduces directly to the Newtonian internal+kinetic energy in the appropriate limit—emerges naturally and self-consistently from the difference of the equation for total fluid energy and the equation for baryon number conservation multiplied by the average baryon mass m, when m is expressed in terms of contributions from the nuclear species in the fluid, and allowed to be mutable.

- Authors:

- Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1456814

- Alternate Identifier(s):
- OSTI ID: 1416431

- Grant/Contract Number:
- AC05-00OR22725

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript

- Journal Name:
- Physical Review D

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010

- Publisher:
- American Physical Society (APS)

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS

### Citation Formats

```
Cardall, Christian Y.
```*Relativistic analogue of the Newtonian fluid energy equation with nucleosynthesis*. United States: N. p., 2017.
Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.123014.

```
Cardall, Christian Y.
```*Relativistic analogue of the Newtonian fluid energy equation with nucleosynthesis*. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.123014.

```
Cardall, Christian Y. Fri .
"Relativistic analogue of the Newtonian fluid energy equation with nucleosynthesis". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.123014. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1456814.
```

```
@article{osti_1456814,
```

title = {Relativistic analogue of the Newtonian fluid energy equation with nucleosynthesis},

author = {Cardall, Christian Y.},

abstractNote = {In Newtonian fluid dynamics simulations in which composition has been tracked by a nuclear reaction network, energy generation due to composition changes has generally been handled as a separate source term in the energy equation. Here, a relativistic equation in conservative form for total fluid energy, obtained from the spacetime divergence of the stress-energy tensor, in principle encompasses such energy generation; but it is not explicitly manifest. An alternative relativistic energy equation in conservative form—in which the nuclear energy generation appears explicitly, and that reduces directly to the Newtonian internal+kinetic energy in the appropriate limit—emerges naturally and self-consistently from the difference of the equation for total fluid energy and the equation for baryon number conservation multiplied by the average baryon mass m, when m is expressed in terms of contributions from the nuclear species in the fluid, and allowed to be mutable.},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.96.123014},

journal = {Physical Review D},

number = 12,

volume = 96,

place = {United States},

year = {Fri Dec 15 00:00:00 EST 2017},

month = {Fri Dec 15 00:00:00 EST 2017}

}