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Title: Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest

Abstract

Climate niche models project that subalpine forest ranges will extend upslope with climate warming. These projections assume that the climate suitable for adult trees will be adequate for forest regeneration, ignoring climate requirements for seedling recruitment, a potential demographic bottleneck. Moreover, local genetic adaptation is expected to facilitate range expansion, with tree populations at the upper forest edge providing the seed best adapted to the alpine. Here, we test these expectations using a novel combination of common gardens, seeded with two widely distributed subalpine conifers, and climate manipulations replicated at three elevations. Infrared heaters raised temperatures in heated plots, but raised temperatures more in the forest than at or above treeline because strong winds at high elevation reduced heating efficiency. Watering increased season-average soil moisture similarly across sites. Contrary to expectations, warming reduced Engelmann spruce recruitment at and above treeline, as well as in the forest. Warming reduced limber pine first-year recruitment in the forest, but had no net effect on fourth-year recruitment at any site. Watering during the snow-free season alleviated some negative effects of warming, indicating that warming exacerbated water limitations. Contrary to expectations of local adaptation, low-elevation seeds of both species initially recruited more strongly than high-elevationmore » seeds across the elevation gradient, although the low-provenance advantage diminished by the fourth year for Engelmann spruce, likely due to small sample sizes. High- and low-elevation provenances responded similarly to warming across sites for Engelmann spruce, but differently for limber pine. In the context of increasing tree mortality, lower recruitment at all elevations with warming, combined with lower quality, high-provenance seed being most available for colonizing the alpine, portends range contraction for Engelmann spruce. The lower sensitivity of limber pine to warming indicates a potential for this species to become more important in subalpine forest communities in the coming centuries.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [2];  [4];  [5]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. U.S. Geological Survey, Boise, ID (United States)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  5. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1439219
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1400808
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; FG02-07ER64457
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Global Change Biology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 6; Related Information: © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd; Journal ID: ISSN 1354-1013
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Kueppers, Lara M., Conlisk, Erin, Castanha, Cristina, Moyes, Andrew B., Germino, Matthew J., de Valpine, Perry, Torn, Margaret S., and Mitton, Jeffry B. Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1111/gcb.13561.
Kueppers, Lara M., Conlisk, Erin, Castanha, Cristina, Moyes, Andrew B., Germino, Matthew J., de Valpine, Perry, Torn, Margaret S., & Mitton, Jeffry B. Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest. United States. doi:10.1111/gcb.13561.
Kueppers, Lara M., Conlisk, Erin, Castanha, Cristina, Moyes, Andrew B., Germino, Matthew J., de Valpine, Perry, Torn, Margaret S., and Mitton, Jeffry B. Thu . "Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest". United States. doi:10.1111/gcb.13561. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1439219.
@article{osti_1439219,
title = {Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest},
author = {Kueppers, Lara M. and Conlisk, Erin and Castanha, Cristina and Moyes, Andrew B. and Germino, Matthew J. and de Valpine, Perry and Torn, Margaret S. and Mitton, Jeffry B.},
abstractNote = {Climate niche models project that subalpine forest ranges will extend upslope with climate warming. These projections assume that the climate suitable for adult trees will be adequate for forest regeneration, ignoring climate requirements for seedling recruitment, a potential demographic bottleneck. Moreover, local genetic adaptation is expected to facilitate range expansion, with tree populations at the upper forest edge providing the seed best adapted to the alpine. Here, we test these expectations using a novel combination of common gardens, seeded with two widely distributed subalpine conifers, and climate manipulations replicated at three elevations. Infrared heaters raised temperatures in heated plots, but raised temperatures more in the forest than at or above treeline because strong winds at high elevation reduced heating efficiency. Watering increased season-average soil moisture similarly across sites. Contrary to expectations, warming reduced Engelmann spruce recruitment at and above treeline, as well as in the forest. Warming reduced limber pine first-year recruitment in the forest, but had no net effect on fourth-year recruitment at any site. Watering during the snow-free season alleviated some negative effects of warming, indicating that warming exacerbated water limitations. Contrary to expectations of local adaptation, low-elevation seeds of both species initially recruited more strongly than high-elevation seeds across the elevation gradient, although the low-provenance advantage diminished by the fourth year for Engelmann spruce, likely due to small sample sizes. High- and low-elevation provenances responded similarly to warming across sites for Engelmann spruce, but differently for limber pine. In the context of increasing tree mortality, lower recruitment at all elevations with warming, combined with lower quality, high-provenance seed being most available for colonizing the alpine, portends range contraction for Engelmann spruce. The lower sensitivity of limber pine to warming indicates a potential for this species to become more important in subalpine forest communities in the coming centuries.},
doi = {10.1111/gcb.13561},
journal = {Global Change Biology},
issn = {1354-1013},
number = 6,
volume = 23,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}

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Cited by: 25 works
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Declines in low-elevation subalpine tree populations outpace growth in high-elevation populations with warming
    journal, March 2017

    • Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J.
    • Journal of Ecology, Vol. 105, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12750

    Global drivers of tree seedling establishment at alpine treelines in a changing climate
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    Divergent responses to climate change and disturbance drive recruitment patterns underlying latitudinal shifts of tree species
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    • Boisvert‐Marsh, Laura; Périé, Catherine; de Blois, Sylvie
    • Journal of Ecology, Vol. 107, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.13149

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    Seed origin and warming constrain lodgepole pine recruitment, slowing the pace of population range shifts
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    • Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J.
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 24, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13840

    Complex interactions among successional trajectories and climate govern spatial resilience after severe windstorms in central Wisconsin, USA
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    • Lucash, Melissa S.; Ruckert, Kelsey L.; Nicholas, Robert E.
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    Complex interactions among successional trajectories and climate govern spatial resilience after severe windstorms in central Wisconsin, USA
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    • Lucash, Melissa S.; Ruckert, Kelsey L.; Nicholas, Robert E.
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    • DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12750

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    journal, February 2019

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    • DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.13149

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