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Title: Optimizing Power–Frequency Droop Characteristics of Distributed Energy Resources

Abstract

This paper outlines a procedure to design power-frequency droop slopes for distributed energy resources (DERs) installed in distribution networks to optimally participate in primary frequency response. In particular, the droop slopes are engineered such that DERs respond in proportion to their power ratings and they are not unfairly penalized in power provisioning based on their location in the distribution network. The main contribution of our approach is that a guaranteed level of frequency regulation can be guaranteed at the feeder head, while ensuring that the outputs of individual DERs conform to some well-defined notion of fairness. The approach we adopt leverages an optimization-based perspective and suitable linearizations of the power-flow equations to embed notions of fairness and information regarding the physics of the power flows within the distribution network into the droop slopes. Time-domain simulations from a differential algebraic equation model of the 39-bus New England test-case system augmented with three instances of the IEEE 37-node distribution-network with frequency-sensitive DERs are provided to validate our approach.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)
OSTI Identifier:
1435410
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5D00-68134
Journal ID: ISSN 0885-8950
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems; Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; distributed energy resources; droop control; primary frequency response

Citation Formats

Guggilam, Swaroop S., Zhao, Changhong, Dall Anese, Emiliano, Chen, Yu Christine, and Dhople, Sairaj V. Optimizing Power–Frequency Droop Characteristics of Distributed Energy Resources. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2017.2747766.
Guggilam, Swaroop S., Zhao, Changhong, Dall Anese, Emiliano, Chen, Yu Christine, & Dhople, Sairaj V. Optimizing Power–Frequency Droop Characteristics of Distributed Energy Resources. United States. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2017.2747766.
Guggilam, Swaroop S., Zhao, Changhong, Dall Anese, Emiliano, Chen, Yu Christine, and Dhople, Sairaj V. Tue . "Optimizing Power–Frequency Droop Characteristics of Distributed Energy Resources". United States. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2017.2747766.
@article{osti_1435410,
title = {Optimizing Power–Frequency Droop Characteristics of Distributed Energy Resources},
author = {Guggilam, Swaroop S. and Zhao, Changhong and Dall Anese, Emiliano and Chen, Yu Christine and Dhople, Sairaj V.},
abstractNote = {This paper outlines a procedure to design power-frequency droop slopes for distributed energy resources (DERs) installed in distribution networks to optimally participate in primary frequency response. In particular, the droop slopes are engineered such that DERs respond in proportion to their power ratings and they are not unfairly penalized in power provisioning based on their location in the distribution network. The main contribution of our approach is that a guaranteed level of frequency regulation can be guaranteed at the feeder head, while ensuring that the outputs of individual DERs conform to some well-defined notion of fairness. The approach we adopt leverages an optimization-based perspective and suitable linearizations of the power-flow equations to embed notions of fairness and information regarding the physics of the power flows within the distribution network into the droop slopes. Time-domain simulations from a differential algebraic equation model of the 39-bus New England test-case system augmented with three instances of the IEEE 37-node distribution-network with frequency-sensitive DERs are provided to validate our approach.},
doi = {10.1109/TPWRS.2017.2747766},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Power Systems},
number = 3,
volume = 33,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2018},
month = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2018}
}