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Title: Switchgrass Biomass Quality as Affected by Nitrogen Rate, Harvest Time, and Storage

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) biomass quality as affected by N rate, harvest time, and storage. This research was conducted near Bristol, SD, in 2010 and 2011. Treatments included three N rates (0, 56, and 112 kg N ha –1) applied annually and each N rate replicated four times. After a killing frost, all of the plots were harvested and baled in large round bales in October 2010 and November 2011. An area of about 30 m 2 from each plot was left unharvested to represent storage of standing switchgrass over the winter and to determine dry matter yields. Switchgrass was analyzed for hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, mineral elements, N, and C. In the first season, storage of the fall harvested switchgrass bales numerically increased the concentrations of hemicellulose, lignin, and N. In the second season, they increased significantly. Mineral elements significantly increased in both sampling seasons. Delaying harvest until spring decreased lignin, N, and mineral elements concentration, and increased cellulose and hemicellulose concentrations, but also reduced biomass yield. Results from this study suggest that delaying the switchgrass harvest until spring increased the overall feedstock quality for ethanol production, but yieldmore » reductions must be considered to determine the overall economic impact of a delayed harvest.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [4]
  1. South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). Dep. of Plant Science
  2. Pusan National Univ., Miryang (South Korea). Dep. of Life Science and Environmental Biochemistry
  3. USDA-ARS, North Central Ag Research Lab, Brookings, SD (United States)
  4. South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Regional Sun Grant Center
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
OSTI Identifier:
1427975
Grant/Contract Number:
FC36-05GO85041
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Agronomy Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0002-1962
Publisher:
Alliance of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Science Societies
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Ibrahim, Mostafa, Hong, Chang Oh., Singh, Shikha, Kumar, Sandeep, Osborne, Shannon, and Owens, Vance. Switchgrass Biomass Quality as Affected by Nitrogen Rate, Harvest Time, and Storage. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0380.
Ibrahim, Mostafa, Hong, Chang Oh., Singh, Shikha, Kumar, Sandeep, Osborne, Shannon, & Owens, Vance. Switchgrass Biomass Quality as Affected by Nitrogen Rate, Harvest Time, and Storage. United States. doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0380.
Ibrahim, Mostafa, Hong, Chang Oh., Singh, Shikha, Kumar, Sandeep, Osborne, Shannon, and Owens, Vance. Wed . "Switchgrass Biomass Quality as Affected by Nitrogen Rate, Harvest Time, and Storage". United States. doi:10.2134/agronj2016.07.0380. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1427975.
@article{osti_1427975,
title = {Switchgrass Biomass Quality as Affected by Nitrogen Rate, Harvest Time, and Storage},
author = {Ibrahim, Mostafa and Hong, Chang Oh. and Singh, Shikha and Kumar, Sandeep and Osborne, Shannon and Owens, Vance},
abstractNote = {The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) biomass quality as affected by N rate, harvest time, and storage. This research was conducted near Bristol, SD, in 2010 and 2011. Treatments included three N rates (0, 56, and 112 kg N ha–1) applied annually and each N rate replicated four times. After a killing frost, all of the plots were harvested and baled in large round bales in October 2010 and November 2011. An area of about 30 m2 from each plot was left unharvested to represent storage of standing switchgrass over the winter and to determine dry matter yields. Switchgrass was analyzed for hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, mineral elements, N, and C. In the first season, storage of the fall harvested switchgrass bales numerically increased the concentrations of hemicellulose, lignin, and N. In the second season, they increased significantly. Mineral elements significantly increased in both sampling seasons. Delaying harvest until spring decreased lignin, N, and mineral elements concentration, and increased cellulose and hemicellulose concentrations, but also reduced biomass yield. Results from this study suggest that delaying the switchgrass harvest until spring increased the overall feedstock quality for ethanol production, but yield reductions must be considered to determine the overall economic impact of a delayed harvest.},
doi = {10.2134/agronj2016.07.0380},
journal = {Agronomy Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 25 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Jan 25 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 4works
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Web of Science

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  • Estimates of dry matter losses during harvest and storage of herbaceous biomass are needed to determine harvest efficiency and net biomass yeild. Losses of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) biomass stored in large round bales as affected by protected and unprotected conditions in three experiments during 1992 to 1995. We also measured the losses of dry matter (DM) during the harvesting operation each year and determined the quantity and quality of runoff water from stored bales during one year. In Experiment 1, "Alamo" switchgrass was harvested in August 1992 and stored in 275 kg bales unprotected outside and on a grassmore » sod for six months. In Experiments 2 and 3, switchgrass was harvested in November of 1993 and 1994, respectively, and stored in 370 kg bales for one year inside on concrete, outside on a grass sod unprotected from the elements or outside on a gravel pad. In each experiment, the biomass was field dried to 11 to 19% moisture and baled. The bales were weighed at the beginning and end of the storage period to determine DM losses. In Experiemnt 1, DM losses during six months of storage were 13% of the original bale dry weight. In Experiemnts 2 and 3, there were no differences (P>0.05) in DM losses (average of 5%) among outside treatments during the 12 months of storage. There were no biomass losses for bales stored inside in Experiment 2; however, there was a 2% loss in Experiment 3. Loses of DM during baling ranged from 1 to 5% depending on moisture concentration in the biomass at baling. Larger losses were associated with drier biomass, presumably because of more shattering. Quality and quantity of runoff water from bales were not different (P>0.05) from runoff water of control plots.« less
  • Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm-season perennial grass native to North America, has potential as a biomass energy crop. Their objective was to develop harvest management recommendations for biomass feedstock and forage production. Alamo switchgrass was established in 1992 at Stephenville and Dallas, TX. Four harvest frequencies (one to four cuts per year) and three final autumn harvests (Sept., Oct., or Nov.) were imposed from 1993 to 1996. Tiller densities were counted each spring. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in 1993 and 1994. Concentrations of NDF were lowest and of CP were highest inmore » May-harvested biomass. Forage quality of regrowth decreased with age, reaching NDF concentrations of 790 g kg{sup {minus}1} and CP of < 20 g kg{sup {minus}1}. Total seasonal yields decreased as harvest frequency increased; however, a severe drought reversed this trend at Dallas in 1996. The highest yields occurred with a single harvest in mid-September. Delaying the final harvest until November reduced yields. Harvest date and frequency did not affect tiller density, although tiller density decreased from 900 to 650 and 630 to 310 m{sup {minus}2} at Dallas and Stephenville, respectively, during 1994 to 1997. Thus, a single mid-September harvest should maximize biomass yields in the south-central USA. A two-cut (spring-autumn) system may allow a farmer to use initial growth as forage and the regrowth for biomass, but total yields would be reduced. More frequent harvests would reduce yields further.« less
  • Wheat biomass yield and the portions recoverable by different harvesting methods were investigated at Bushland, TX. Where all above-ground dry matter was removed by hand and threshed with a small bundle thresher; the grain, straw and chaff portions averaged about 40, 50, and 10, respectively, of the total biomass. When clipping samples at a simulated combine harvesting height (13-14 inches), the remaining stubble amounts ranged from 1500 to 3000 pounds per acre when grain yield levels averaged 3000 to 6000 pounds per acre. In treatments where the stubble was swathed and baled after conventional combine harvesting, the straw yields rangedmore » from 2000 to 2800 pounds per acre. The bales accounted for 34 to 46 of the ''material other than grain.'' There was about 2000 pounds per acre of stubble remaining below the 3 to 4 inch swather cutting height. In treatments where the combine cutter-bar was operated near ground level (2 to 3 inches) and all straw discharge was caught (whole plant combining), the catchings ranged from 65 to 89 of the ''material other than grain.'' The catching weights ranged from 3900 to 6000 pounds per acre.« less
  • When all above-stump parts of southern pine trees are harvested, only 16 to 22 percent more biomass is obtained than in conventional harvests. This additional biomass is of low quality because of its high moisture and bark content and low wood specific gravity. In addition, its harvest doubles the removal of certain important soil nutrients. When hardwood stands are total-tree harvested, the additional biomass yield is 30 to 100 percent higher than in conventional harvests, and the quality of biomass for fuel and fiber is above that for pine stands. Nutrient drain for hardwood stands logged by total-tree methods ismore » 2 to 3 times that in conventional harvesting, but the drain may be less critical than for pine stands because rotations are generally longer and soil nutrient reserves are often higher. Total-tree harvesting has made many hardwood stands operable that previously were not, thereby increasing the silvicultural opportunity to improve the stands. Judged by these comparisons, total-tree harvesting would appear to be more attractive, both economically and ecologically, in hardwood stands than in pine.« less