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Title: Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site

Abstract

Isotopes of iodine were generated during plutonium production within the nine production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The short half-life 131I that was released from the fuel into the atmosphere during the dissolution process (when the fuel was dissolved) in the Hanford Site 200 Area is no longer present at concentrations of concern in the environment. The long half-life 129I generated at the Hanford Site during reactor operations was (1) stored in single-shell and double-shell tanks, (2) discharged to liquid disposal sites (e.g., cribs and trenches), (3) released to the atmosphere during fuel reprocessing operations, or (4) captured by off-gas absorbent devices (silver reactors) at chemical separations plants (PUREX, B-Plant, T-Plant, and REDOX). Releases of 129I to the subsurface have resulted in several large, though dilute, plumes in the groundwater. There is also 129I remaining in the vadose zone beneath disposal or leak locations. The fate and transport of 129I in the environment and potential remediation technologies are currently being studied as part of environmental remediation activities at the Hanford Site. A conceptual model describing the nature and extent of subsurface contamination, factors that control plume behavior, and factors relevant to potential remediation processes is neededmore » to support environmental remedy decisions. Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited. In addition, its behavior in subsurface is different from that of other more common and important contaminants (e.g., U, Cr and Tc) in terms of sorption (adsorption and precipitation), and aqueous phase species transformation via redox reactions. Thus, the conceptual model also needs to both describe known contaminant and biogeochemical process information and identify aspects about which additional information is needed to effectively support remedy decisions.« less

Authors:
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  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1419157
Report Number(s):
PNNL-24709 Rev. 2
830403000
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS

Citation Formats

Truex, Michael J., Lee, Brady D., Johnson, Christian D., Qafoku, Nikolla, Szecsody, James E., Kyle, Jennifer E., Tfaily, Malak M., Snyder, Michelle MV, Cantrell, Kirk J., Saunders, Danielle L., Lawter, Amanda R., Oostrom, Martijn L., Tartakovsky, Guzel D., Leavy, Ian I., McElroy, Erin M., Appriou, Delphine, Sahajpal, Rahul, Carroll, Matthew M., Chu, Rosalie K., Cordova, Elsa, Last, George V., Lee, Hope, Kaplan, Daniel I., Garcia, Whitney L., Kerisit, Sebastien N., Qafoku, Odeta, Bowden, Mark E., Smith, Frances N., Toyoda, Jason G., and Plymale, Andrew E. Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1419157.
Truex, Michael J., Lee, Brady D., Johnson, Christian D., Qafoku, Nikolla, Szecsody, James E., Kyle, Jennifer E., Tfaily, Malak M., Snyder, Michelle MV, Cantrell, Kirk J., Saunders, Danielle L., Lawter, Amanda R., Oostrom, Martijn L., Tartakovsky, Guzel D., Leavy, Ian I., McElroy, Erin M., Appriou, Delphine, Sahajpal, Rahul, Carroll, Matthew M., Chu, Rosalie K., Cordova, Elsa, Last, George V., Lee, Hope, Kaplan, Daniel I., Garcia, Whitney L., Kerisit, Sebastien N., Qafoku, Odeta, Bowden, Mark E., Smith, Frances N., Toyoda, Jason G., & Plymale, Andrew E. Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site. United States. doi:10.2172/1419157.
Truex, Michael J., Lee, Brady D., Johnson, Christian D., Qafoku, Nikolla, Szecsody, James E., Kyle, Jennifer E., Tfaily, Malak M., Snyder, Michelle MV, Cantrell, Kirk J., Saunders, Danielle L., Lawter, Amanda R., Oostrom, Martijn L., Tartakovsky, Guzel D., Leavy, Ian I., McElroy, Erin M., Appriou, Delphine, Sahajpal, Rahul, Carroll, Matthew M., Chu, Rosalie K., Cordova, Elsa, Last, George V., Lee, Hope, Kaplan, Daniel I., Garcia, Whitney L., Kerisit, Sebastien N., Qafoku, Odeta, Bowden, Mark E., Smith, Frances N., Toyoda, Jason G., and Plymale, Andrew E. Fri . "Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site". United States. doi:10.2172/1419157. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1419157.
@article{osti_1419157,
title = {Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site},
author = {Truex, Michael J. and Lee, Brady D. and Johnson, Christian D. and Qafoku, Nikolla and Szecsody, James E. and Kyle, Jennifer E. and Tfaily, Malak M. and Snyder, Michelle MV and Cantrell, Kirk J. and Saunders, Danielle L. and Lawter, Amanda R. and Oostrom, Martijn L. and Tartakovsky, Guzel D. and Leavy, Ian I. and McElroy, Erin M. and Appriou, Delphine and Sahajpal, Rahul and Carroll, Matthew M. and Chu, Rosalie K. and Cordova, Elsa and Last, George V. and Lee, Hope and Kaplan, Daniel I. and Garcia, Whitney L. and Kerisit, Sebastien N. and Qafoku, Odeta and Bowden, Mark E. and Smith, Frances N. and Toyoda, Jason G. and Plymale, Andrew E.},
abstractNote = {Isotopes of iodine were generated during plutonium production within the nine production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The short half-life 131I that was released from the fuel into the atmosphere during the dissolution process (when the fuel was dissolved) in the Hanford Site 200 Area is no longer present at concentrations of concern in the environment. The long half-life 129I generated at the Hanford Site during reactor operations was (1) stored in single-shell and double-shell tanks, (2) discharged to liquid disposal sites (e.g., cribs and trenches), (3) released to the atmosphere during fuel reprocessing operations, or (4) captured by off-gas absorbent devices (silver reactors) at chemical separations plants (PUREX, B-Plant, T-Plant, and REDOX). Releases of 129I to the subsurface have resulted in several large, though dilute, plumes in the groundwater. There is also 129I remaining in the vadose zone beneath disposal or leak locations. The fate and transport of 129I in the environment and potential remediation technologies are currently being studied as part of environmental remediation activities at the Hanford Site. A conceptual model describing the nature and extent of subsurface contamination, factors that control plume behavior, and factors relevant to potential remediation processes is needed to support environmental remedy decisions. Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited. In addition, its behavior in subsurface is different from that of other more common and important contaminants (e.g., U, Cr and Tc) in terms of sorption (adsorption and precipitation), and aqueous phase species transformation via redox reactions. Thus, the conceptual model also needs to both describe known contaminant and biogeochemical process information and identify aspects about which additional information is needed to effectively support remedy decisions.},
doi = {10.2172/1419157},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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