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Title: Effects of vulture exclusion on carrion consumption by facultative scavengers

Abstract

Vultures provide an essential ecosystem service through removal of carrion, but glob-ally, many populations are collapsing and several species are threatened with extinction. Widespread declines in vulture populations could increase the availability of carrion to other organisms, but the ways facultative scavengers might respond to this increase have not been thoroughly explored. We aimed to determine whether facultative scavengers increase carrion consumption in the absence of vulture competition and whether they are capable of functionally replacing vultures in the removal of car-rion biomass from the landscape. We experimentally excluded 65 rabbit carcasses from vultures during daylight hours and placed an additional 65 carcasses that were accessible to vultures in forested habitat in South Carolina, USA during summer (June–August). We used motion- activated cameras to compare carrion use by facultative scavenging species between the experimental and control carcasses. Scavenging by facultative scavengers did not increase in the absence of competition with vultures. We found no difference in scavenger presence between control carcasses and those from which vultures were excluded. Eighty percent of carcasses from which vultures were excluded were not scavenged by vertebrates, compared to 5% of carcasses that were accessible to vultures. At the end of the 7- day trials,more » there was a 10.1- fold in-crease in the number of experimental carcasses that were not fully scavenged com-pared to controls. Facultative scavengers did not functionally replace vultures during summer in our study. This finding may have been influenced by the time of the year in which the study took place, the duration of the trials, and the spacing of carcass sites. Our results suggest that under the warm and humid conditions of our study, facultative scavengers would not compensate for loss of vultures. Carcasses would persist longer in the environment and consumption of carrion would likely shift from vertebrates to decomposers. Such changes could have substantial implications for disease transmission, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem functioning.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1]
  1. Carnivore Ecology Laboratory, Forest and Wildlife Research Center, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State MS USA
  2. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Sandusky OH USA
  3. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken SC USA, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens GA USA
  4. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken SC USA, Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens GA USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1419087
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1419088; OSTI ID: 1509713
Grant/Contract Number:  
EM0004391
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Ecology and Evolution
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Ecology and Evolution Journal Volume: 8 Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-7758
Publisher:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Cathartes aura; competition; scavenging

Citation Formats

Hill, Jacob E., DeVault, Travis L., Beasley, James C., Rhodes, Jr, Olin E., and Belant, Jerrold L. Effects of vulture exclusion on carrion consumption by facultative scavengers. United Kingdom: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/ece3.3840.
Hill, Jacob E., DeVault, Travis L., Beasley, James C., Rhodes, Jr, Olin E., & Belant, Jerrold L. Effects of vulture exclusion on carrion consumption by facultative scavengers. United Kingdom. doi:10.1002/ece3.3840.
Hill, Jacob E., DeVault, Travis L., Beasley, James C., Rhodes, Jr, Olin E., and Belant, Jerrold L. Thu . "Effects of vulture exclusion on carrion consumption by facultative scavengers". United Kingdom. doi:10.1002/ece3.3840.
@article{osti_1419087,
title = {Effects of vulture exclusion on carrion consumption by facultative scavengers},
author = {Hill, Jacob E. and DeVault, Travis L. and Beasley, James C. and Rhodes, Jr, Olin E. and Belant, Jerrold L.},
abstractNote = {Vultures provide an essential ecosystem service through removal of carrion, but glob-ally, many populations are collapsing and several species are threatened with extinction. Widespread declines in vulture populations could increase the availability of carrion to other organisms, but the ways facultative scavengers might respond to this increase have not been thoroughly explored. We aimed to determine whether facultative scavengers increase carrion consumption in the absence of vulture competition and whether they are capable of functionally replacing vultures in the removal of car-rion biomass from the landscape. We experimentally excluded 65 rabbit carcasses from vultures during daylight hours and placed an additional 65 carcasses that were accessible to vultures in forested habitat in South Carolina, USA during summer (June–August). We used motion- activated cameras to compare carrion use by facultative scavenging species between the experimental and control carcasses. Scavenging by facultative scavengers did not increase in the absence of competition with vultures. We found no difference in scavenger presence between control carcasses and those from which vultures were excluded. Eighty percent of carcasses from which vultures were excluded were not scavenged by vertebrates, compared to 5% of carcasses that were accessible to vultures. At the end of the 7- day trials, there was a 10.1- fold in-crease in the number of experimental carcasses that were not fully scavenged com-pared to controls. Facultative scavengers did not functionally replace vultures during summer in our study. This finding may have been influenced by the time of the year in which the study took place, the duration of the trials, and the spacing of carcass sites. Our results suggest that under the warm and humid conditions of our study, facultative scavengers would not compensate for loss of vultures. Carcasses would persist longer in the environment and consumption of carrion would likely shift from vertebrates to decomposers. Such changes could have substantial implications for disease transmission, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem functioning.},
doi = {10.1002/ece3.3840},
journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
issn = {2045-7758},
number = 5,
volume = 8,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1002/ece3.3840

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) scavenging a rabbit carcass at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

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Works referenced in this record:

Nested species-rich networks of scavenging vertebrates support high levels of interspecific competition
journal, January 2016

  • Sebastián-González, Esther; Moleón, Marcos; Gibert, Jean P.
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Aspects of Coyote Predation on Angora Goats
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Home Ranges of Sympatric Black and Turkey Vultures in South Carolina
journal, January 2004

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Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan
journal, January 2004

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Microbial Community Functional Change during Vertebrate Carrion Decomposition
journal, November 2013


Scavenger community response to the removal of a dominant scavenger
journal, May 2011


Understanding how mammalian scavengers use information from avian scavengers: cue from above
journal, March 2017


Resource dispersion and consumer dominance: scavenging at wolf- and hunter-killed carcasses in Greater Yellowstone, USA: Resource dispersion and consumer dominance
journal, September 2003


Ungulate Carcasses Perforate Ecological Filters and Create Biogeochemical Hotspots in Forest Herbaceous Layers Allowing Trees a Competitive Advantage
journal, September 2009


Foraging by pine marten Martes martes in relation to food resources in Białowieża National Park, Poland
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Cadaver decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems
journal, November 2006


Dropping dead: causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide: Worldwide decline of vultures
journal, December 2011


Scavenging on European bison carcasses in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (eastern Poland)
journal, January 2003


Carcass size shapes the structure and functioning of an African scavenging assemblage
journal, February 2015

  • Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Sebastián-González, Esther
  • Oikos, Vol. 124, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1111/oik.02222

Deer Carcass Decomposition and Potential Scavenger Exposure to Chronic Wasting Disease
journal, July 2009

  • Jennelle, Christopher S.; Samuel, Michael D.; Nolden, Cherrie A.
  • Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 73, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.2193/2008-282

Nuisance Ecology: Do Scavenging Condors Exact Foraging Costs on Pumas in Patagonia?
journal, January 2013


The Digestive Tract of the Whiteback Griffon Vulture and its role in Disease Transmission Among wild Ungulates
journal, July 1975


Increasing awareness of avian ecological function
journal, August 2006


Bovine Tuberculosis in Doñana Biosphere Reserve: The Role of Wild Ungulates as Disease Reservoirs in the Last Iberian Lynx Strongholds
journal, July 2008


Is Wildlife Going to the Dogs? Impacts of Feral and Free-roaming Dogs on Wildlife Populations
journal, February 2011


Effects of Vulture Declines on Facultative Scavengers and Potential Implications for Mammalian Disease Transmission
journal, March 2012


The microbiome of New World vultures
journal, November 2014

  • Roggenbuck, Michael; Bærholm Schnell, Ida; Blom, Nikolaj
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
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Urbanisation alters processing of marine carrion on sandy beaches
journal, November 2013


Limited functional redundancy in vertebrate scavenger guilds fails to compensate for the loss of raptors from urbanized sandy beaches
journal, September 2014

  • Huijbers, Chantal M.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Schoeman, David S.
  • Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 21, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12282

Foraging and diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in relation to variable food resources in Biatowieza National Park, Poland
journal, April 1992


Modelling the effects of sanitary policies on European vulture conservation
journal, October 2012

  • Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, Ma Àngels
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep00753

Abiotic and biotic factors modulate carrion fate and vertebrate scavenging communities
journal, September 2017

  • Turner, Kelsey L.; Abernethy, Erin F.; Conner, L. Mike
  • Ecology, Vol. 98, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/ecy.1930

Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes
journal, December 2015


Scavenging Efficiency of Turkey Vultures in Tropical Forest
journal, August 1986


Effects of carrion resources on herbivore spatial distribution are mediated by facultative scavengers
journal, May 2009

  • Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Selva, Nuria; Carrete, Martina
  • Basic and Applied Ecology, Vol. 10, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.baae.2008.03.009

Why Fruits Rot, Seeds Mold, and Meat Spoils
journal, July 1977

  • Janzen, Daniel H.
  • The American Naturalist, Vol. 111, Issue 980
  • DOI: 10.1086/283200

Seasonal Food Habits of the Coyote in the South Carolina Coastal Plain
journal, March 2008


Factors influencing the acquisition of rodent carrion by vertebrate scavengers and decomposers
journal, March 2004

  • DeVault, Travis L.; Brisbin, Jr., I. Lehr; Rhodes, Jr., Olin E.
  • Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 82, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1139/z04-022

Identification of vertebrate scavengers of small mammal carcasses in a forested landscape
journal, June 2002

  • DeVault, Travis L.; Rhodes, Olin E.
  • Acta Theriologica, Vol. 47, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF03192458

Counting the cost of vulture decline—An appraisal of the human health and other benefits of vultures in India
journal, September 2008


Mesopredators dominate competition for carrion in an agricultural landscape
journal, May 2011

  • DeVault, Travis L.; Olson, Zachary H.; Beasley, James C.
  • Basic and Applied Ecology, Vol. 12, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.baae.2011.02.008

Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
journal, March 2003


Diet shift of a facultative scavenger, the wolverine, following recolonization of wolves
journal, November 2008


Roads and Their Major Ecological Effects
journal, November 1998


Scavenging efficiency and red fox abundance in Mediterranean mountains with and without vultures
journal, February 2017

  • Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Sebastián-González, Esther
  • Acta Oecologica, Vol. 79
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2016.12.012

Factors affecting carcass use by a guild of scavengers in European temperate woodland
journal, December 2005

  • Selva, N.; Jędrzejewska, B.; Jędrzejewski, W.
  • Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 83, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1139/z05-158

The avian scavenger crisis: Looming extinctions, trophic cascades, and loss of critical ecosystem functions
journal, June 2016


A Summer Carrion Study of the Baby Pig Sus Scrofa Linnaeus
journal, September 1965


North American population estimates of waterbirds, vultures and hawks from migration counts in Veracruz, México
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Competition at the carcass: opportunities for social foraging by turkey vultures in southern Ontario
journal, June 1991

  • Prior, Kent A.; Weatherhead, Patrick J.
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  • DOI: 10.1139/z91-218

Obligate vertebrate scavengers must be large soaring fliers
journal, June 2004


Home Range, Habitat Use and Survival of Coyotes in Western South Carolina
journal, October 2009

  • Schrecengost, Joshua D.; Kilgo, John C.; Ray, H. Scott
  • The American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 162, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1674/0003-0031-162.2.346

Evidence of the role of European wild boar as a reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
journal, February 2008


Chemically Mediated Competition Between Microbes and Animals: Microbes as Consumers in food webs
journal, November 2006


Soil and vegetation nutrient response to bison carcasses in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland
journal, January 2007


Effects of Experimental Exclusion of Scavengers from Carcasses of Anthrax-Infected Herbivores on Bacillus anthracis Sporulation, Survival, and Distribution
journal, April 2013

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Raven scavenging favours group foraging in wolves
journal, June 2004


Destruction of Bacteria in the Digestive Tract of the Maggot of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
journal, March 2001

  • Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Miller, Jacqueline; Mumcuoglu, Michael
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Catastrophic collapse of Indian white-backed Gyps bengalensis and long-billed Gyps indicus vulture populations
journal, March 2003


Data from: Effects of vulture exclusion on carrion consumption by facultative scavengers
dataset, January 2019


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Necrobiome framework for bridging decomposition ecology of autotrophically and heterotrophically derived organic matter
    journal, September 2018

    • Benbow, M. Eric; Barton, Philip S.; Ulyshen, Michael D.
    • Ecological Monographs, Vol. 89, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/ecm.1331

    Abiotic and biotic factors modulate carrion fate and vertebrate scavenging communities
    journal, September 2017

    • Turner, Kelsey L.; Abernethy, Erin F.; Conner, L. Mike
    • Ecology, Vol. 98, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1002/ecy.1930

    Cadaver decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems
    journal, November 2006


    Ungulate Carcasses Perforate Ecological Filters and Create Biogeochemical Hotspots in Forest Herbaceous Layers Allowing Trees a Competitive Advantage
    journal, September 2009


    Soil and vegetation nutrient response to bison carcasses in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland
    journal, January 2007


    Scavenging efficiency and red fox abundance in Mediterranean mountains with and without vultures
    journal, February 2017

    • Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Sebastián-González, Esther
    • Acta Oecologica, Vol. 79
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2016.12.012

    Raven scavenging favours group foraging in wolves
    journal, June 2004


    Effects of carrion resources on herbivore spatial distribution are mediated by facultative scavengers
    journal, May 2009

    • Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Selva, Nuria; Carrete, Martina
    • Basic and Applied Ecology, Vol. 10, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.baae.2008.03.009

    Mesopredators dominate competition for carrion in an agricultural landscape
    journal, May 2011

    • DeVault, Travis L.; Olson, Zachary H.; Beasley, James C.
    • Basic and Applied Ecology, Vol. 12, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.baae.2011.02.008

    The avian scavenger crisis: Looming extinctions, trophic cascades, and loss of critical ecosystem functions
    journal, June 2016


    Counting the cost of vulture decline—An appraisal of the human health and other benefits of vultures in India
    journal, September 2008


    Obligate vertebrate scavengers must be large soaring fliers
    journal, June 2004


    Urbanisation alters processing of marine carrion on sandy beaches
    journal, November 2013


    Increasing awareness of avian ecological function
    journal, August 2006


    Evidence of the role of European wild boar as a reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
    journal, February 2008


    Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan
    journal, January 2004

    • Oaks, J. Lindsay; Gilbert, Martin; Virani, Munir Z.
    • Nature, Vol. 427, Issue 6975
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature02317

    The microbiome of New World vultures
    journal, November 2014

    • Roggenbuck, Michael; Bærholm Schnell, Ida; Blom, Nikolaj
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6498

    Roads do not increase carrion use by a vertebrate scavenging community
    journal, November 2018


    Modelling the effects of sanitary policies on European vulture conservation
    journal, October 2012

    • Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, Ma Àngels
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 2, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep00753

    Resource dispersion and consumer dominance: scavenging at wolf- and hunter-killed carcasses in Greater Yellowstone, USA: Resource dispersion and consumer dominance
    journal, September 2003


    Scavenging on European bison carcasses in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (eastern Poland)
    journal, January 2003


    Why Fruits Rot, Seeds Mold, and Meat Spoils
    journal, July 1977

    • Janzen, Daniel H.
    • The American Naturalist, Vol. 111, Issue 980
    • DOI: 10.1086/283200

    Top carnivore decline has cascading effects on scavengers and carrion persistence
    journal, November 2018

    • Cunningham, Calum X.; Johnson, Christopher N.; Barmuta, Leon A.
    • Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 285, Issue 1892
    • DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.1582

    Understanding how mammalian scavengers use information from avian scavengers: cue from above
    journal, March 2017


    Another Continental Vulture Crisis: Africa's Vultures Collapsing toward Extinction: African vultures collapsing toward extinction
    journal, June 2015

    • Ogada, Darcy; Shaw, Phil; Beyers, Rene L.
    • Conservation Letters, Vol. 9, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1111/conl.12182

    Limited functional redundancy in vertebrate scavenger guilds fails to compensate for the loss of raptors from urbanized sandy beaches
    journal, September 2014

    • Huijbers, Chantal M.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Schoeman, David S.
    • Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 21, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12282

    Diet shift of a facultative scavenger, the wolverine, following recolonization of wolves
    journal, November 2008


    Effects of Vulture Declines on Facultative Scavengers and Potential Implications for Mammalian Disease Transmission
    journal, March 2012


    Foraging and diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in relation to variable food resources in Biatowieza National Park, Poland
    journal, April 1992


    Scavenger community response to the removal of a dominant scavenger
    journal, May 2011


    Dropping dead: causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide: Worldwide decline of vultures
    journal, December 2011


    Carcass size shapes the structure and functioning of an African scavenging assemblage
    journal, February 2015

    • Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Sebastián-González, Esther
    • Oikos, Vol. 124, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1111/oik.02222

    Factors influencing the acquisition of rodent carrion by vertebrate scavengers and decomposers
    journal, March 2004

    • DeVault, Travis L.; Brisbin, Jr., I. Lehr; Rhodes, Jr., Olin E.
    • Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 82, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1139/z04-022

    Factors affecting carcass use by a guild of scavengers in European temperate woodland
    journal, December 2005

    • Selva, N.; Jędrzejewska, B.; Jędrzejewski, W.
    • Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 83, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1139/z05-158

    Competition at the carcass: opportunities for social foraging by turkey vultures in southern Ontario
    journal, June 1991

    • Prior, Kent A.; Weatherhead, Patrick J.
    • Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 69, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1139/z91-218

    Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes
    journal, December 2015


    Roads and Their Major Ecological Effects
    journal, November 1998


    Bovine Tuberculosis in Doñana Biosphere Reserve: The Role of Wild Ungulates as Disease Reservoirs in the Last Iberian Lynx Strongholds
    journal, July 2008


    Nuisance Ecology: Do Scavenging Condors Exact Foraging Costs on Pumas in Patagonia?
    journal, January 2013


    Microbial Community Functional Change during Vertebrate Carrion Decomposition
    journal, November 2013


    Is Wildlife Going to the Dogs? Impacts of Feral and Free-roaming Dogs on Wildlife Populations
    journal, February 2011


    Destruction of Bacteria in the Digestive Tract of the Maggot of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
    journal, March 2001

    • Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Miller, Jacqueline; Mumcuoglu, Michael
    • Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 38, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1603/0022-2585-38.2.161

    Home Ranges of Sympatric Black and Turkey Vultures in South Carolina
    journal, January 2004

    • DeVault, Travis L.; Reinhart, Bradley D.; Brisbin, I. Lehr
    • The Condor, Vol. 106, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1650/7461

    Home Range, Habitat Use and Survival of Coyotes in Western South Carolina
    journal, October 2009

    • Schrecengost, Joshua D.; Kilgo, John C.; Ray, H. Scott
    • The American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 162, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1674/0003-0031-162.2.346

    Nested species-rich networks of scavenging vertebrates support high levels of interspecific competition
    journal, January 2016

    • Sebastián-González, Esther; Moleón, Marcos; Gibert, Jean P.
    • Ecology, Vol. 97, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1890/15-0212.1

    Deer Carcass Decomposition and Potential Scavenger Exposure to Chronic Wasting Disease
    journal, July 2009

    • Jennelle, Christopher S.; Samuel, Michael D.; Nolden, Cherrie A.
    • Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 73, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.2193/2008-282

    Scavenging Efficiency of Turkey Vultures in Tropical Forest
    journal, August 1986


    A Summer Carrion Study of the Baby Pig Sus Scrofa Linnaeus
    journal, September 1965


    Aspects of Coyote Predation on Angora Goats
    journal, May 1997

    • Windberg, Lamar A.; Knowlton, Frederick F.; Ebbert, Steven M.
    • Journal of Range Management, Vol. 50, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.2307/4003719

    The Digestive Tract of the Whiteback Griffon Vulture and its role in Disease Transmission Among wild Ungulates
    journal, July 1975


    Necrobiome Framework for Bridging Decomposition Ecology of Autotrophically and Heterotrophically Derived Organic Matter
    journal, January 2019

    • Benbow, Mark Eric; Barton, Philip S.; Ulyshen, Michael D.
    • The Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, Vol. 100, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/bes2.1454

    Roads do not increase carrion use by a vertebrate scavenging community
    journal, November 2018


    Top carnivore decline has cascading effects on scavengers and carrion persistence
    journal, November 2018

    • Cunningham, Calum X.; Johnson, Christopher N.; Barmuta, Leon A.
    • Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 285, Issue 1892
    • DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.1582

      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.