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Title: Low Pressure Vapor-assisted Solution Process for Tunable Band Gap Pinhole-free Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Films

Abstract

Organo-lead halide perovskites have recently attracted great interest for potential applications in thin-film photovoltaics and optoelectronics. Herein, we present a protocol for the fabrication of this material via the low-pressure vapor assisted solution process (LP-VASP) method, which yields ~19% power conversion efficiency in planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. First, we report the synthesis of methylammonium iodide (CH 3NH 3I) and methylammonium bromide (CH 3NH 3Br) from methylamine and the corresponding halide acid (HI or HBr). Then, we describe the fabrication of pinhole-free, continuous methylammonium-lead halide perovskite (CH 3NH 3PbX 3 with X = I, Br, Cl and their mixture) films with the LP-VASP. This process is based on two steps: i) spin-coating of a homogenous layer of lead halide precursor onto a substrate, and ii) conversion of this layer to CH 3NH 3PbI 3-xBr x by exposing the substrate to vapors of a mixture of CH 3NH 3I and CH 3NH 3Br at reduced pressure and 120 °C. Through slow diffusion of the methylammonium halide vapor into the lead halide precursor, we achieve slow and controlled growth of a continuous, pinhole-free perovskite film. The LP-VASP allows synthetic access to the full halide composition space in CH 3NH 3PbI 3-xBr xmore » with 0 ≤ x ≤ 3. Depending on the composition of the vapor phase, the bandgap can be tuned between 1.6 eV ≤ E g ≤ 2.3 eV. In addition, by varying the composition of the halide precursor and of the vapor phase, we can also obtain CH 3NH 3PbI 3-xCl x. Films obtained from the LP-VASP are reproducible, phase pure as confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements, and show high photoluminescence quantum yield. The process does not require the use of a glovebox.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [7]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Chemical Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science Division
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Division
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Chemical Sciences Division;; Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Physics, Graduate School of Nanotechnology; Inst. Officina dei Materiali, Trieste (Italy). TASC Lab.
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Chemical Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  5. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis
  6. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division
  7. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Chemical Sciences Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division
OSTI Identifier:
1418307
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Visualized Experiments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2017; Journal Issue: 127; Journal ID: ISSN 1940-087X
Publisher:
MyJoVE Corp.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; Lead Halide Perovskite; Low-Pressure Vapor-Assisted Solution Process; Thin Film; Solar Cell; Methylammonium Halide Synthesis; Tunable Band Gap

Citation Formats

Sutter-Fella, Carolin M., Li, Yanbo, Cefarin, Nicola, Buckley, Aya, Ngo, Quynh Phuong, Javey, Ali, Sharp, Ian D., and Toma, Francesca M. Low Pressure Vapor-assisted Solution Process for Tunable Band Gap Pinhole-free Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Films. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3791/55404.
Sutter-Fella, Carolin M., Li, Yanbo, Cefarin, Nicola, Buckley, Aya, Ngo, Quynh Phuong, Javey, Ali, Sharp, Ian D., & Toma, Francesca M. Low Pressure Vapor-assisted Solution Process for Tunable Band Gap Pinhole-free Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Films. United States. doi:10.3791/55404.
Sutter-Fella, Carolin M., Li, Yanbo, Cefarin, Nicola, Buckley, Aya, Ngo, Quynh Phuong, Javey, Ali, Sharp, Ian D., and Toma, Francesca M. Fri . "Low Pressure Vapor-assisted Solution Process for Tunable Band Gap Pinhole-free Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Films". United States. doi:10.3791/55404. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1418307.
@article{osti_1418307,
title = {Low Pressure Vapor-assisted Solution Process for Tunable Band Gap Pinhole-free Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Films},
author = {Sutter-Fella, Carolin M. and Li, Yanbo and Cefarin, Nicola and Buckley, Aya and Ngo, Quynh Phuong and Javey, Ali and Sharp, Ian D. and Toma, Francesca M.},
abstractNote = {Organo-lead halide perovskites have recently attracted great interest for potential applications in thin-film photovoltaics and optoelectronics. Herein, we present a protocol for the fabrication of this material via the low-pressure vapor assisted solution process (LP-VASP) method, which yields ~19% power conversion efficiency in planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. First, we report the synthesis of methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I) and methylammonium bromide (CH3NH3Br) from methylamine and the corresponding halide acid (HI or HBr). Then, we describe the fabrication of pinhole-free, continuous methylammonium-lead halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbX3 with X = I, Br, Cl and their mixture) films with the LP-VASP. This process is based on two steps: i) spin-coating of a homogenous layer of lead halide precursor onto a substrate, and ii) conversion of this layer to CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx by exposing the substrate to vapors of a mixture of CH3NH3I and CH3NH3Br at reduced pressure and 120 °C. Through slow diffusion of the methylammonium halide vapor into the lead halide precursor, we achieve slow and controlled growth of a continuous, pinhole-free perovskite film. The LP-VASP allows synthetic access to the full halide composition space in CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx with 0 ≤ x ≤ 3. Depending on the composition of the vapor phase, the bandgap can be tuned between 1.6 eV ≤ Eg ≤ 2.3 eV. In addition, by varying the composition of the halide precursor and of the vapor phase, we can also obtain CH3NH3PbI3-xClx. Films obtained from the LP-VASP are reproducible, phase pure as confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements, and show high photoluminescence quantum yield. The process does not require the use of a glovebox.},
doi = {10.3791/55404},
journal = {Journal of Visualized Experiments},
number = 127,
volume = 2017,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Sep 08 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri Sep 08 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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