skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Nanofocusing with aberration-corrected rotationally parabolic refractive X-ray lenses

Abstract

Wavefront errors of rotationally parabolic refractive X-ray lenses made of beryllium (Be CRLs) have been recovered for various lens sets and X-ray beam configurations. Due to manufacturing via an embossing process, aberrations of individual lenses within the investigated ensemble are very similar. By deriving a mean single-lens deformation for the ensemble, aberrations of any arbitrary lens stack can be predicted from the ensemble with σ¯ = 0.034λ. Using these findings the expected focusing performance of current Be CRLs are modeled for relevant X-ray energies and bandwidths and it is shown that a correction of aberrations can be realised without prior lens characterization but simply based on the derived lens deformation. As a result, the performance of aberration-corrected Be CRLs is discussed and the applicability of aberration-correction demonstrated over wide X-ray energy ranges.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [3];  [3];  [2]
  1. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  2. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)
  3. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  4. Diamond Light Source Ltd., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1417642
Grant/Contract Number:
05K13OD2; 05K13OD4; AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (Online); Journal Volume: 25; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1600-5775
Publisher:
International Union of Crystallography
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; refractive X-ray optics; aberration correction; ptychography; phase plate

Citation Formats

Seiboth, Frank, Wittwer, Felix, Scholz, Maria, Kahnt, Maik, Seyrich, Martin, Schropp, Andreas, Wagner, Ulrich, Rau, Christoph, Garrevoet, Jan, Falkenberg, Gerald, and Schroer, Christian G. Nanofocusing with aberration-corrected rotationally parabolic refractive X-ray lenses. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1107/S1600577517015272.
Seiboth, Frank, Wittwer, Felix, Scholz, Maria, Kahnt, Maik, Seyrich, Martin, Schropp, Andreas, Wagner, Ulrich, Rau, Christoph, Garrevoet, Jan, Falkenberg, Gerald, & Schroer, Christian G. Nanofocusing with aberration-corrected rotationally parabolic refractive X-ray lenses. United States. doi:10.1107/S1600577517015272.
Seiboth, Frank, Wittwer, Felix, Scholz, Maria, Kahnt, Maik, Seyrich, Martin, Schropp, Andreas, Wagner, Ulrich, Rau, Christoph, Garrevoet, Jan, Falkenberg, Gerald, and Schroer, Christian G. 2018. "Nanofocusing with aberration-corrected rotationally parabolic refractive X-ray lenses". United States. doi:10.1107/S1600577517015272. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1417642.
@article{osti_1417642,
title = {Nanofocusing with aberration-corrected rotationally parabolic refractive X-ray lenses},
author = {Seiboth, Frank and Wittwer, Felix and Scholz, Maria and Kahnt, Maik and Seyrich, Martin and Schropp, Andreas and Wagner, Ulrich and Rau, Christoph and Garrevoet, Jan and Falkenberg, Gerald and Schroer, Christian G.},
abstractNote = {Wavefront errors of rotationally parabolic refractive X-ray lenses made of beryllium (Be CRLs) have been recovered for various lens sets and X-ray beam configurations. Due to manufacturing via an embossing process, aberrations of individual lenses within the investigated ensemble are very similar. By deriving a mean single-lens deformation for the ensemble, aberrations of any arbitrary lens stack can be predicted from the ensemble with σ¯ = 0.034λ. Using these findings the expected focusing performance of current Be CRLs are modeled for relevant X-ray energies and bandwidths and it is shown that a correction of aberrations can be realised without prior lens characterization but simply based on the derived lens deformation. As a result, the performance of aberration-corrected Be CRLs is discussed and the applicability of aberration-correction demonstrated over wide X-ray energy ranges.},
doi = {10.1107/S1600577517015272},
journal = {Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 25,
place = {United States},
year = 2018,
month = 1
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:
  • Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses with short focal distance can generate intensive hard x-ray microbeams with lateral extensions in the 100nm range even at short distance from a synchrotron radiation source. We have fabricated planar parabolic lenses made of silicon that have a focal distance in the range of a few millimeters at hard x-ray energies. In a crossed geometry, two lenses were used to generate a microbeam with a lateral size of 330nm by 110nm at 25keV in a distance of 41.8m from the synchrotron radiation source. First microdiffraction and fluorescence microtomography experiments were carried out with these lenses. Usingmore » diamond as lens material, microbeams with lateral size down to 20nm and below are conceivable in the energy range from 10 to 100keV.« less
  • In order to focus light or x rays, the thickness of a refractive lens is typically varied over its aperture. Here, we present a refractive x-ray lens made of lamellae of constant thickness, the refractive lamellar lens. Refractive power is created by a specific bending of the lamellae rather than by a concave lens profile. This very special design has the technological advantage that materials like sapphire or diamond can be used to make lenses by coating techniques. A first lens prototype focused x rays with a photon energy E = 15.25 keV to a lateral beam size of 164 nm × 296 nm full width atmore » half maximum.« less
  • We exploit the inherent dispersion in diffractive optics to demonstrate planar chromatic-aberration-corrected lenses. Specifically, we designed, fabricated and characterized cylindrical diffractive lenses that efficiently focus the entire visible band (450 nm to 700 nm) onto a single line. These devices are essentially pixelated, multi-level microstructures. Experiments confirm an average optical efficiency of 25% for a three-wavelength apochromatic lens whose chromatic focus shift is only 1.3 μm and 25 μm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. Super-achromatic performance over the continuous visible band is also demonstrated with averaged lateral and axial focus shifts of only 1.65 μm and 73.6 μm,more » respectively. These lenses are easy to fabricate using single-step grayscale lithography and can be inexpensively replicated. Furthermore, these devices are thin (<3 μm), error tolerant, has low aspect ratio (<1:1) and offer polarization-insensitive focusing, all significant advantages compared to alternatives that rely on metasurfaces. Lastly, our design methodology offers high design flexibility in numerical aperture and focal length, and is readily extended to 2D.« less
  • Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses are novel optical components for the hard x-ray range from about 5 keV to about 120 keV. They focus in both directions. They are compact, robust, and easy to align and to operate. They can be used like glass lenses are used for visible light, the main difference being that the numerical aperture N.A. is much smaller than 1 (of order 10-4 to 10-3). Their main applications are in micro- and nanofocusing, in imaging by absorption and phase contrast and in fluorescence mode. In combination with tomography they allow for 3-dimensional imaging of opaque media withmore » submicrometer resolution. Finally, they can be used in speckle spectroscopy by means of coherent x-ray scattering. Beryllium as lens material strongly enhances the transmission and the field of view as compared to aluminium. With increased N.A. the lateral resolution is also considerably improved with Be lenses. References to a number of applications are given.« less