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Title: Astronomy at a Trillion Volts

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  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory
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Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
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Conference: Physics and Astronomy Colloquium ; 2017-10-19 - 2017-10-19 ; Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
Country of Publication:
United States
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Citation Formats

Sinnis, Constantine. Astronomy at a Trillion Volts. United States: N. p., 2018. Web.
Sinnis, Constantine. Astronomy at a Trillion Volts. United States.
Sinnis, Constantine. 2018. "Astronomy at a Trillion Volts". United States. doi:.
title = {Astronomy at a Trillion Volts},
author = {Sinnis, Constantine},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2018,
month = 1

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  • A first phase modulator was made of a couple of 3{times}3{times}22mm{sup 3} KTP crystals set into an open rectangular coaxial line in such a way that the electric field in the active medium was parallel to the crystallographic Z axis. The line was driven by a single 4kV, 140ps FWHM pulse through an inductive connector in the middle, giving rise to damped oscillations at 4GHz. Phase modulation of laser beams passing through the 44mm of KTP was due to an efficient Pockels effect owing to similar electric and optical wave velocities in the device. This latter was presented at IAEAmore » Conference, Paris, November 1994. The main characteristics are reminded here whereas 2 noticeable modifications are introduced. The first modification is in the choice of the connector inductance to get the best compromise between voltage transmission and damping rate. The second modification consists in using a second high voltage pulse delayed and synchronized in resonance with the first one to add the respective effects. Nevertheless the combination of both pulses in the same feedthrough involves in a reduction of pulse amplitude down to 2.5kV. Fabry-Perot spectra are shown for 1.5ns, 1,053nm single frequency laser beams entering the modulator at different working times, less than 20ns. The measured bandwidths are between 25 and 60pm but 2 time greater values are expected from a new design driven by 2 independent pulses of 4kV.« less
  • In order to determine the overall fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the amount of operation in charge depleting (CD) versus charge sustaining modes must be determined. Mode of operation is predominantly dependent on customer usage of the vehicle and is therefore highly variable. The utility factor (UF) concept was developed to quantify the distance a group of vehicles has traveled or may travel in CD mode. SAE J2841 presents a UF calculation method based on data collected from travel surveys of conventional vehicles. UF estimates have been used in a variety of areas, including the calculationmore » of window sticker fuel economy, policy decisions, and vehicle design determination. The EV Project, a plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration being conducted across the United States, provides the opportunity to determine the real-world UF of a large group of privately owned Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicles. Using data collected from Volts enrolled in The EV Project, this paper compares the real-world UF of two groups of Chevrolet Volts to estimated UF's based on J2841. The actual observed fleet utility factors (FUF) for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups studied were observed to be 72% and 74%, respectively. Using the EPA CD ranges, the method prescribed by J2841 estimates a FUF of 65% and 68% for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups, respectively. Volt drivers achieved higher percentages of distance traveled in EV mode for two reasons. First, they had fewer long-distance travel days than drivers in the national travel survey referenced by J2841. Second, they charged more frequently than the J2841 assumption of once per day - drivers of Volts in this study averaged over 1.4 charging events per day. Although actual CD range varied widely as driving conditions varied, the average CD ranges for the two Volt groups studied matched the EPA CD range estimates, so CD range variation did not affect FUF results.« less
  • The demand for and use of low-sulfur coal may increase because of concern with acid rain. Alaska's low-sulfur coal resources can only be described as enormous: 4.0 trillion tons of hypothetical onshore coal. Mean total sulfur content is 0.34% (range 0.06-6.6%, n = 262) with a mean apparent rank of subbituminous B. There are 50 coal fields in Alaska; the bulk of the resources are in six major fields or regions: Nenana, Cook Inlet, Matanuska, Chignik-Herendeen Bay, North Slope, and Bering River. For comparison, Carboniferous coals in the Appalachian region and Interior Province have a mean total sulfur content ofmore » 2.3% (range 0.1-19.0%, n = 5,497) with a mean apparent rank of high-volatile A bituminous coal, and Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains Cretaceous and Tertiary coals have a mean total sulfur content of 0.86% (range 0.02-19.0%, n = 2,754) with a mean apparent rank of subbituminous B. Alaskan coal has two-fifths the total sulfur of western US coals and one-sixth that of Carboniferous US coals. Even though Alaska has large resources of low-sulfur coal, these resources have not been developed because of (1) remote locations and little infrastructure, (2) inhospitable climate, and (3) long distances to potential markets. These resources will not be used in the near future unless there are some major, and probably violent, changes in the world energy picture.« less