# Frog: Asynchronous Graph Processing on GPU with Hybrid Coloring Model

## Abstract

GPUs have been increasingly used to accelerate graph processing for complicated computational problems regarding graph theory. Many parallel graph algorithms adopt the asynchronous computing model to accelerate the iterative convergence. Unfortunately, the consistent asynchronous computing requires locking or atomic operations, leading to significant penalties/overheads when implemented on GPUs. As such, coloring algorithm is adopted to separate the vertices with potential updating conflicts, guaranteeing the consistency/correctness of the parallel processing. Common coloring algorithms, however, may suffer from low parallelism because of a large number of colors generally required for processing a large-scale graph with billions of vertices. We propose a light-weight asynchronous processing framework called Frog with a preprocessing/hybrid coloring model. The fundamental idea is based on Pareto principle (or 80-20 rule) about coloring algorithms as we observed through masses of realworld graph coloring cases. We find that a majority of vertices (about 80%) are colored with only a few colors, such that they can be read and updated in a very high degree of parallelism without violating the sequential consistency. Accordingly, our solution separates the processing of the vertices based on the distribution of colors. In this work, we mainly answer three questions: (1) how to partition the vertices inmore »

- Authors:

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1416975

- DOE Contract Number:
- AC02-06CH11357

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article

- Resource Relation:
- Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering; Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 1

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- Asynchronous Computing Model; GPGPU; Graph Processing

### Citation Formats

```
Shi, Xuanhua, Luo, Xuan, Liang, Junling, Zhao, Peng, Di, Sheng, He, Bingsheng, and Jin, Hai.
```*Frog: Asynchronous Graph Processing on GPU with Hybrid Coloring Model*. United States: N. p., 2018.
Web. doi:10.1109/TKDE.2017.2745562.

```
Shi, Xuanhua, Luo, Xuan, Liang, Junling, Zhao, Peng, Di, Sheng, He, Bingsheng, & Jin, Hai.
```*Frog: Asynchronous Graph Processing on GPU with Hybrid Coloring Model*. United States. doi:10.1109/TKDE.2017.2745562.

```
Shi, Xuanhua, Luo, Xuan, Liang, Junling, Zhao, Peng, Di, Sheng, He, Bingsheng, and Jin, Hai. Mon .
"Frog: Asynchronous Graph Processing on GPU with Hybrid Coloring Model". United States.
doi:10.1109/TKDE.2017.2745562.
```

```
@article{osti_1416975,
```

title = {Frog: Asynchronous Graph Processing on GPU with Hybrid Coloring Model},

author = {Shi, Xuanhua and Luo, Xuan and Liang, Junling and Zhao, Peng and Di, Sheng and He, Bingsheng and Jin, Hai},

abstractNote = {GPUs have been increasingly used to accelerate graph processing for complicated computational problems regarding graph theory. Many parallel graph algorithms adopt the asynchronous computing model to accelerate the iterative convergence. Unfortunately, the consistent asynchronous computing requires locking or atomic operations, leading to significant penalties/overheads when implemented on GPUs. As such, coloring algorithm is adopted to separate the vertices with potential updating conflicts, guaranteeing the consistency/correctness of the parallel processing. Common coloring algorithms, however, may suffer from low parallelism because of a large number of colors generally required for processing a large-scale graph with billions of vertices. We propose a light-weight asynchronous processing framework called Frog with a preprocessing/hybrid coloring model. The fundamental idea is based on Pareto principle (or 80-20 rule) about coloring algorithms as we observed through masses of realworld graph coloring cases. We find that a majority of vertices (about 80%) are colored with only a few colors, such that they can be read and updated in a very high degree of parallelism without violating the sequential consistency. Accordingly, our solution separates the processing of the vertices based on the distribution of colors. In this work, we mainly answer three questions: (1) how to partition the vertices in a sparse graph with maximized parallelism, (2) how to process large-scale graphs that cannot fit into GPU memory, and (3) how to reduce the overhead of data transfers on PCIe while processing each partition. We conduct experiments on real-world data (Amazon, DBLP, YouTube, RoadNet-CA, WikiTalk and Twitter) to evaluate our approach and make comparisons with well-known non-preprocessed (such as Totem, Medusa, MapGraph and Gunrock) and preprocessed (Cusha) approaches, by testing four classical algorithms (BFS, PageRank, SSSP and CC). On all the tested applications and datasets, Frog is able to significantly outperform existing GPU-based graph processing systems except Gunrock and MapGraph. MapGraph gets better performance than Frog when running BFS on RoadNet-CA. The comparison between Gunrock and Frog is inconclusive. Frog can outperform Gunrock more than 1.04X when running PageRank and SSSP, while the advantage of Frog is not obvious when running BFS and CC on some datasets especially for RoadNet-CA.},

doi = {10.1109/TKDE.2017.2745562},

journal = {IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering},

number = 1,

volume = 30,

place = {United States},

year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2018},

month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2018}

}