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Title: Strain-engineered growth of two-dimensional materials

Abstract

The application of strain to semiconductors allows for controlled modification of their band structure. This principle is employed for the manufacturing of devices ranging from high-performance transistors to solid-state lasers. Traditionally, strain is typically achieved via growth on lattice-mismatched substrates. For two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, this is not feasible as they typically do not interact epitaxially with the substrate. Here in this paper, we demonstrate controlled strain engineering of 2D semiconductors during synthesis by utilizing the thermal coefficient of expansion mismatch between the substrate and semiconductor. Using WSe 2 as a model system, we demonstrate stable built-in strains ranging from 1% tensile to 0.2% compressive on substrates with different thermal coefficient of expansion. Consequently, we observe a dramatic modulation of the band structure, manifested by a strain-driven indirect-to-direct bandgap transition and brightening of the dark exciton in bilayer and monolayer WSe 2, respectively. The growth method developed here should enable flexibility in design of more sophisticated devices based on 2D materials.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science
  4. Army Research Lab., Adelphi, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1416940
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Two-dimensional materials

Citation Formats

Ahn, Geun Ho, Amani, Matin, Rasool, Haider, Lien, Der-Hsien, Mastandrea, James P., Ager III, Joel W., Dubey, Madan, Chrzan, Daryl C., Minor, Andrew M., and Javey, Ali. Strain-engineered growth of two-dimensional materials. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00516-5.
Ahn, Geun Ho, Amani, Matin, Rasool, Haider, Lien, Der-Hsien, Mastandrea, James P., Ager III, Joel W., Dubey, Madan, Chrzan, Daryl C., Minor, Andrew M., & Javey, Ali. Strain-engineered growth of two-dimensional materials. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00516-5.
Ahn, Geun Ho, Amani, Matin, Rasool, Haider, Lien, Der-Hsien, Mastandrea, James P., Ager III, Joel W., Dubey, Madan, Chrzan, Daryl C., Minor, Andrew M., and Javey, Ali. Wed . "Strain-engineered growth of two-dimensional materials". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00516-5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1416940.
@article{osti_1416940,
title = {Strain-engineered growth of two-dimensional materials},
author = {Ahn, Geun Ho and Amani, Matin and Rasool, Haider and Lien, Der-Hsien and Mastandrea, James P. and Ager III, Joel W. and Dubey, Madan and Chrzan, Daryl C. and Minor, Andrew M. and Javey, Ali},
abstractNote = {The application of strain to semiconductors allows for controlled modification of their band structure. This principle is employed for the manufacturing of devices ranging from high-performance transistors to solid-state lasers. Traditionally, strain is typically achieved via growth on lattice-mismatched substrates. For two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, this is not feasible as they typically do not interact epitaxially with the substrate. Here in this paper, we demonstrate controlled strain engineering of 2D semiconductors during synthesis by utilizing the thermal coefficient of expansion mismatch between the substrate and semiconductor. Using WSe2 as a model system, we demonstrate stable built-in strains ranging from 1% tensile to 0.2% compressive on substrates with different thermal coefficient of expansion. Consequently, we observe a dramatic modulation of the band structure, manifested by a strain-driven indirect-to-direct bandgap transition and brightening of the dark exciton in bilayer and monolayer WSe2, respectively. The growth method developed here should enable flexibility in design of more sophisticated devices based on 2D materials.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-017-00516-5},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Sep 20 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Sep 20 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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