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Title: Methods and apparatus for measuring small leaks from carbon dioxide sequestration facilities

Abstract

In one embodiment, a CO.sub.2 leak detection instrument detects leaks from a site (e.g., a CO.sub.2 sequestration facility) using rapid concentration measurements of CO.sub.2, O.sub.2 and optionally water concentration that are achieved, for example, using laser spectroscopy (e.g. direct absorption laser spectroscopy). Water vapor in the sample gas may not be removed, or only partially removed. The sample gas may be collected using a multiplexed inlet assembly from a plurality of locations. CO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 concentrations may be corrected based on the water concentration. A resulting dataset of the CO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 concentrations is analyzed over time intervals to detect any changes in CO.sub.2 concentration that are not anti-correlated with O.sub.2 concentration, and to identify a potential CO.sub.2 leak in response thereto. The analysis may include determining eddy covariance flux measurements of sub-surface potential carbon.

Inventors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1415454
Patent Number(s):
9,857,267
Application Number:
15/350,925
Assignee:
Aerodyne Research, Inc. (Billerica, MA) CHO
DOE Contract Number:
SC0013132
Resource Type:
Patent
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2016 Nov 14
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Nelson, Jr., David D., and Herndon, Scott C. Methods and apparatus for measuring small leaks from carbon dioxide sequestration facilities. United States: N. p., 2018. Web.
Nelson, Jr., David D., & Herndon, Scott C. Methods and apparatus for measuring small leaks from carbon dioxide sequestration facilities. United States.
Nelson, Jr., David D., and Herndon, Scott C. 2018. "Methods and apparatus for measuring small leaks from carbon dioxide sequestration facilities". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1415454.
@article{osti_1415454,
title = {Methods and apparatus for measuring small leaks from carbon dioxide sequestration facilities},
author = {Nelson, Jr., David D. and Herndon, Scott C.},
abstractNote = {In one embodiment, a CO.sub.2 leak detection instrument detects leaks from a site (e.g., a CO.sub.2 sequestration facility) using rapid concentration measurements of CO.sub.2, O.sub.2 and optionally water concentration that are achieved, for example, using laser spectroscopy (e.g. direct absorption laser spectroscopy). Water vapor in the sample gas may not be removed, or only partially removed. The sample gas may be collected using a multiplexed inlet assembly from a plurality of locations. CO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 concentrations may be corrected based on the water concentration. A resulting dataset of the CO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 concentrations is analyzed over time intervals to detect any changes in CO.sub.2 concentration that are not anti-correlated with O.sub.2 concentration, and to identify a potential CO.sub.2 leak in response thereto. The analysis may include determining eddy covariance flux measurements of sub-surface potential carbon.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2018,
month = 1
}

Patent:

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  • An apparatus for producing hydrogen gas wherein the apparatus includes a reactor. In one embodiment, the reactor includes at least two conversion-removal portions. Each conversion-removal portion comprises a catalyst section configured to convert CO in the stream to CO.sub.2 and a membrane section located downstream of and in flow communication with the catalyst section. The membrane section is configured to selectively remove the CO.sub.2 from the stream and to be in flow communication with a sweep gas.
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  • Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potentialmore » with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution. 6 figs.« less
  • Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potentialmore » with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.« less