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Title: Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought

Abstract

The metabolome, the chemical phenotype of an organism, should be shaped by evolution. Metabolomes depend on genetic composition and expression, which can be sources of evolutionary inertia, so most aspects of metabolomes should be similar in closely related sympatric species. We examined the metabolomes of two sympatric subspecies of Pinus sylvestris in Sierra Nevada (southern Iberian Peninsula), one introduced (ssp. iberica) and one autochthonous (ssp. nevadensis), in summer and winter and exposed to folivory by the pine processionary moth. The overall metabolomes differed between the subspecies but both tended to respond more similarly to folivory. The metabolomes of the subspecies were more dissimilar in summer than in winter, and iberica trees had higher concentrations of metabolites directly related to drought stress. Our results suggest that certain plant metabolic responses associated with folivory have been conserved throughout evolutionary history. The larger divergence between subspecies metabolomes in summer is likely due to the warmer and drier conditions that the northern iberica subspecies experience in Sierra Nevada. Our results provide crucial insights into how iberica populations would respond to the predicted conditions of climate change under an increased defoliation, two recent severe issues in the Mediterranean Basin.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [7];  [2]
  1. Environmental Molecular Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; CREAF, Bellaterra, Barcelona Spain
  2. CREAF, Bellaterra, Barcelona Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF- CSIC-UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona Spain
  3. Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada Spain
  4. CREAF, Bellaterra, Barcelona Spain
  5. Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine CA USA
  6. Environmental Molecular Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA
  7. Global Change Research Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a 603 00 Brno Czech Republic
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1415088
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-121524
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-7758; 48729; KP1704020
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Ecology and Evolution; Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 21
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Herbivorous attack; processionary moth; metabolomics; evolutionary processes; sympatric subspecies; Pinus sylvestris; drought; folivory; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Rivas-Ubach, Albert, Sardans, Jordi, Hódar, José Antonio, Garcia-Porta, Joan, Guenther, Alex, Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana, Oravec, Michal, Urban, Otmar, and Peñuelas, Josep. Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/ece3.3343.
Rivas-Ubach, Albert, Sardans, Jordi, Hódar, José Antonio, Garcia-Porta, Joan, Guenther, Alex, Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana, Oravec, Michal, Urban, Otmar, & Peñuelas, Josep. Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought. United States. doi:10.1002/ece3.3343.
Rivas-Ubach, Albert, Sardans, Jordi, Hódar, José Antonio, Garcia-Porta, Joan, Guenther, Alex, Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana, Oravec, Michal, Urban, Otmar, and Peñuelas, Josep. 2017. "Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought". United States. doi:10.1002/ece3.3343.
@article{osti_1415088,
title = {Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought},
author = {Rivas-Ubach, Albert and Sardans, Jordi and Hódar, José Antonio and Garcia-Porta, Joan and Guenther, Alex and Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana and Oravec, Michal and Urban, Otmar and Peñuelas, Josep},
abstractNote = {The metabolome, the chemical phenotype of an organism, should be shaped by evolution. Metabolomes depend on genetic composition and expression, which can be sources of evolutionary inertia, so most aspects of metabolomes should be similar in closely related sympatric species. We examined the metabolomes of two sympatric subspecies of Pinus sylvestris in Sierra Nevada (southern Iberian Peninsula), one introduced (ssp. iberica) and one autochthonous (ssp. nevadensis), in summer and winter and exposed to folivory by the pine processionary moth. The overall metabolomes differed between the subspecies but both tended to respond more similarly to folivory. The metabolomes of the subspecies were more dissimilar in summer than in winter, and iberica trees had higher concentrations of metabolites directly related to drought stress. Our results suggest that certain plant metabolic responses associated with folivory have been conserved throughout evolutionary history. The larger divergence between subspecies metabolomes in summer is likely due to the warmer and drier conditions that the northern iberica subspecies experience in Sierra Nevada. Our results provide crucial insights into how iberica populations would respond to the predicted conditions of climate change under an increased defoliation, two recent severe issues in the Mediterranean Basin.},
doi = {10.1002/ece3.3343},
journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
number = 21,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 9
}
  • Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at elemental and molecular levels have focused on nutrients or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defensive metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and to avoid those with higher levels of phenolics and terpenes. Unfortunately, the defensive role of phenolics in conifers is still unclear. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under the herbivorous attack by the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an importantmore » pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Herbivorous attack was not associated with any of the elements analyzed. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing the concentrations of various terpenes and phenolics. Systemic responses differed between subspecies and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Contrary as usually thought, foliar nutrient concentrations did not show to be a main factor of an alleged plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition. Local increases in phenolics were more associated with antioxidant function for protection against oxidative damage produced by folivory. On the other hand, terpenes were directly related to defense against herbivores. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, including both primary and secondary metabolisms, that was, however, less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Subspecies responded similarly locally but differently to folivory at systemic level.« less
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