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Title: Enabling Dissimilar Material Joining Using Friction Stir Scribe Technology

Abstract

One challenge in adapting welding processes to dissimilar material joining is the diversity of melting temperatures of the different materials. Although the use of mechanical fasteners and adhesives have mostly paved the way for near-term implementation of dissimilar material systems, these processes only accentuate the need for low-cost welding processes capable of joining dissimilar material components regardless of alloy, properties, or melting temperature. Friction stir scribe technology was developed to overcome the challenges of joining dissimilar material components where melting temperatures vary greatly, and properties and/or chemistry are not compatible with more traditional welding processes. Although the friction stir scribe process is capable of joining dissimilar metals and metal/polymer systems, a more detailed evaluation of several aluminum/steel joints is presented herein to demonstrate the ability to both chemically and mechanically join dissimilar materials.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1415079
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-125531
Journal ID: ISSN 1047-4838; VT0505000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: JOM. Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society; Journal Volume: 69; Journal Issue: 6
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Hovanski, Yuri, Upadyay, Piyush, Kleinbaum, Sarah, Carlson, Blair, Boettcher, Eric, and Ruokolainen, Robert. Enabling Dissimilar Material Joining Using Friction Stir Scribe Technology. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1007/s11837-017-2334-6.
Hovanski, Yuri, Upadyay, Piyush, Kleinbaum, Sarah, Carlson, Blair, Boettcher, Eric, & Ruokolainen, Robert. Enabling Dissimilar Material Joining Using Friction Stir Scribe Technology. United States. doi:10.1007/s11837-017-2334-6.
Hovanski, Yuri, Upadyay, Piyush, Kleinbaum, Sarah, Carlson, Blair, Boettcher, Eric, and Ruokolainen, Robert. Wed . "Enabling Dissimilar Material Joining Using Friction Stir Scribe Technology". United States. doi:10.1007/s11837-017-2334-6.
@article{osti_1415079,
title = {Enabling Dissimilar Material Joining Using Friction Stir Scribe Technology},
author = {Hovanski, Yuri and Upadyay, Piyush and Kleinbaum, Sarah and Carlson, Blair and Boettcher, Eric and Ruokolainen, Robert},
abstractNote = {One challenge in adapting welding processes to dissimilar material joining is the diversity of melting temperatures of the different materials. Although the use of mechanical fasteners and adhesives have mostly paved the way for near-term implementation of dissimilar material systems, these processes only accentuate the need for low-cost welding processes capable of joining dissimilar material components regardless of alloy, properties, or melting temperature. Friction stir scribe technology was developed to overcome the challenges of joining dissimilar material components where melting temperatures vary greatly, and properties and/or chemistry are not compatible with more traditional welding processes. Although the friction stir scribe process is capable of joining dissimilar metals and metal/polymer systems, a more detailed evaluation of several aluminum/steel joints is presented herein to demonstrate the ability to both chemically and mechanically join dissimilar materials.},
doi = {10.1007/s11837-017-2334-6},
journal = {JOM. Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society},
number = 6,
volume = 69,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Apr 05 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Apr 05 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • One challenge in adapting welding processes to dissimilar material joining is the diversity of melting temperatures of the different materials. Although the use of mechanical fasteners and adhesives have mostly paved the way for near-term implementation of dissimilar material systems, these processes only accentuate the need for low-cost welding processes capable of impartially joining dissimilar material components regardless of alloy, properties, or melting temperature. Friction stir scribe technology was developed to overcome the challenges of joining dissimilar material components where melting temperatures vary greatly, and properties and/or chemistry are not compatible with more traditional welding processes. Finally, although the frictionmore » stir scribe process is capable of joining dissimilar metals and metal/polymer systems, a more detailed evaluation of several aluminum/steel joints is presented herein to demonstrate the ability to both chemically and mechanically join dissimilar materials.« less
  • The ability to effectively join materials with vastly different melting points like Aluminum-Steel, Polymer composites - metals has been one of the road blocks in realizing multi-material components for light weighting efforts. Friction stir scribe (FSS) technique is a promising method that produces continuous overlap joint between materials with vastly different melting regimes and high temperature flow characteristics. FSS uses an offset cutting tool at the tip of the FSW pin to create an insitu mechanical interlock between material interfaces. With investments from Vehicle Technology office, US DOE and several automotive manufacturers and suppliers PNNL is developing the FSS processmore » and has demonstrated viability of joining several material combinations. Details of welding trails, unique challenges and mitigation strategies in different material combinations will be discussed. Joint characterization including mechanical tests and joint performances will also be presented.« less
  • Development of a robust and cost-effective method of joining dissimilar materials could provide a critical pathway to enable widespread use of multi-material designs and components in mainstream industrial applications. The use of multi-material components such as steel-aluminum and aluminum-polymer would allow design engineers to optimize material utilization based on service requirements and could often lead to weight and cost reductions. However, producing an effective joint between materials with vastly different thermal, microstructural, and deformation responses is highly problematic using conventional joining and/or fastening methods. This is especially challenging in cost sensitive, high volume markets that largely rely on low costmore » joining solutions. Friction stir scribe technology was developed to meet the demands of joining materials with drastically different properties and melting regimes. The process enables joining of light metals like magnesium and aluminum to high temperature materials like steel and titanium. Viable joints between polymer composites and metal can also be made using this method. This paper will present the state of the art, progress made, and challenges associated with this innovative derivative of friction stir welding in reference to joining dissimilar metals and polymer/metal combinations.« less
  • Friction stir scribe technology, a derivative of friction stir welding, was applied for the dissimilar lap welding of an aluminum alloy and galvanized mild steel sheets. During the process, the rotating tool with a cobalt steel scribe first penetrated the top material — aluminum — and then the scribe cut the bottom material — steel. The steel was displaced into the upper material to produce a characteristic hook feature. Lap welds were shear tested, and their fracture paths were studied. Welding parameters affected the welding features including hook height, which turned out to be highly related to fracture position. Therefore,more » in this paper, the relationships among welding parameters, hook height, joint strength and fracture position are presented. In addition, influence of zinc coating on joint strength was also studied. Keywords: friction stir scribe technology; dissimilar material welding; zinc coating; hook height; joint strength; fracture position« less
  • We present that friction stir welding (FSW) is a popular technique to join dissimilar materials in numerous applications. The solid state nature of the process enables joining materials with strikingly different physical properties. For welds in lap configuration, an enhancement to this technology is made by introducing a short, hard insert, referred to as a cutting-scribe, at the bottom of the tool pin. The cutting-scribe induces deformation in the bottom plate which leads to the formation of mechanical interlocks or hook like structures at the interface of two materials. A thermo-mechanical computational model employing a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is developedmore » to quantitatively capture the morphology of these interlocks during the FSW process. Simulations using this model are validated by experimental observations. In conclusion, the identified interface morphology coupled with the predicted temperature field from this process–structure model can be used to estimate the post-weld microstructure and joint strength.« less