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Title: Environments of Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems Over the Central United States in Convection Permitting Climate Simulations: Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA
  2. Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1415050
Grant/Contract Number:
292896; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 24; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-01-16 06:12:42; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Yang, Qing, Houze, Jr, Robert A., Leung, L. Ruby, and Feng, Zhe. Environments of Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems Over the Central United States in Convection Permitting Climate Simulations: Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JD027033.
Yang, Qing, Houze, Jr, Robert A., Leung, L. Ruby, & Feng, Zhe. Environments of Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems Over the Central United States in Convection Permitting Climate Simulations: Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027033.
Yang, Qing, Houze, Jr, Robert A., Leung, L. Ruby, and Feng, Zhe. 2017. "Environments of Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems Over the Central United States in Convection Permitting Climate Simulations: Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027033.
@article{osti_1415050,
title = {Environments of Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems Over the Central United States in Convection Permitting Climate Simulations: Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems},
author = {Yang, Qing and Houze, Jr, Robert A. and Leung, L. Ruby and Feng, Zhe},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1002/2017JD027033},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 24,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on December 28, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • Continental-scale convection-permitting simulations of the warm seasons of 2011 and 2012 reproduce realistic structure and frequency distribution of lifetime and event mean precipitation of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over the central United States. Analysis is performed to determine the environmental conditions conducive to generating the longest-lived MCSs and their subsequent interactions. The simulations show that MCSs systematically form over the Great Plains ahead of a trough in the westerlies in combination with an enhanced low-level jet from the Gulf of Mexico. These environmental properties at the time of storm initiation are most prominent for the MCSs that persist for themore » longest times. Systems reaching 9 h or more in lifetime exhibit feedback to the environment conditions through diabatic heating in the MCS stratiform regions. As a result, the parent synoptic-scale wave is strengthened as a divergent perturbation develops over the MCS at high levels, while a cyclonic circulation perturbation develops in the midlevels of the trough, where the vertical gradient of heating in the MCS region is maximized. The quasi-balanced mesoscale vortex helps to maintain the MCS over a long period of time by feeding dry, cool air into the environment at the rear of the MCS region, so that the MCS can draw in air that increases the evaporative cooling that helps maintain the MCS. At lower levels the south-southeasterly jet of warm moist air from the Gulf is enhanced in the presence of the synoptic-scale wave. That moisture supply is essential to the continued redevelopment of the MCS.« less
  • Regional climate of the western U.S. shows clear footprints of interactions between atmospheric circulation and orography. The unique features of the diverse climate regimes challenge climate modeling. These papers provide detailed analyses of observations and regional climate simulations to improve our understanding and modeling of regional climate of the region. Part II focuses on evaluation of simulated interannual climate variability associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation.
  • The authors have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5{degrees}-50{degrees}N, 90{degrees}-105{degrees}W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method of Pickering et al. which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics frommore » convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1 x 10{sup 8} kg CO month{sup {minus}1} to the free troposphere during early summer, assuming the June statistics are typical. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2 x 10{sup 8} kg CO month{sup {minus}1}). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O{sub 3} precursors leads to efficient free tropospheric O{sub 3} formation. The authors estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66-1.1 Gmol O{sub 3} d{sup {minus}1} in good agreement with estimates of O{sub 3} production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model. In this respect the central US region acts as a {open_quotes}chimney{close_quotes} for the country. 44 refs.« less
  • No abstract prepared.