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Title: Classification of igneous rocks analyzed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars

Abstract

Several recent studies have revealed that Mars is not a simple basalt-covered planet, but has a more complex geological history. In Gale crater on Mars, the Curiosity rover discovered 59 igneous rocks. This article focuses on their textures (acquired from the cameras such as MAHLI and MastCam) and their geochemical compositions that have been obtained using the ChemCam instrument. Light-toned crystals have been observed in most of the rocks. They correspond to feldspars ranging from andesines/oligoclases to anorthoclases and sanidines in the leucocratic vesiculated rocks. Darker crystals observed in all igneous rocks (except the leucocratic vesiculated ones) were analyzed by LIBS and mainly identified as Fe-rich pigeonites and Fe-augites. Iron oxides have been observed in all groups whereas F-bearing minerals have been detected only in few of them. From their textural analysis and their whole-rock compositions, all these 59 igneous rocks have been classified in five different groups; from primitive rocks i.e. dark aphanitic basalts/basanites, trachybasalts, tephrites and fine/coarse-grained gabbros/norites to more evolved materials i.e. porphyritic trachyandesites, leucocratic trachytes and quartz-diorites. The basalts and gabbros are found all along the traverse of the rover, whereas the felsic rocks are located before the Kimberley formation, i.e. close to the Peace Vallismore » alluvial fan deposits. This suggests that these alkali rocks have been transported by fluvial activity and could come from the Northern rim of the crater, and may correspond to deeper strata buried under basaltic regolith (Sautter et al., 2015). Some of the basaltic igneous rocks are surprisingly enriched in iron, presenting low Mg# similar to the nakhlite parental melt that cannot be produced by direct melting of the Dreibus and Wanke (1986) martian primitive mantle. The basaltic rocks at Gale are thus different from Gusev basalts. They could originate from different mantle reservoirs, or they could have undergone a more extensive fractional crystallization. Lastly, Gale basaltic rocks could have been the parental magma of residual liquid extending into alkali field towards trachyte composition as magma fractionated under anhydrous condition on its way to the surface before sub adiabatic ascent.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [1];  [6];  [7];  [7];  [1]
  1. Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, (IRAP), Toulouse (France)
  2. Institut de Mineralogie, de Physique des Materiaux et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), Paris (France)
  3. Univ. de Lorraine, Nancy (France)
  4. Univ. de Nantes, Nantes (France). Laboratoire de Planetologie et Geophysique de Nantes
  5. Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States). Applied Physics Lab.
  6. Univ. of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (United States)
  7. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1412900
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-27692
Journal ID: ISSN 0019-1035
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Icarus
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 288; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0019-1035
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Planetary Sciences; igneous rocks; magmatic

Citation Formats

Cousin, Agnes, Sautter, Violaine, Payré, Valérie, Forni, Olivier, Mangold, Nicolas, Gasnault, Olivier, Le Deit, Laetitia, Johnson, Jeff, Maurice, Sylvestre, Salvatore, Mark, Wiens, Roger C., Gasda, Patrick, and Rapin, William. Classification of igneous rocks analyzed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.01.014.
Cousin, Agnes, Sautter, Violaine, Payré, Valérie, Forni, Olivier, Mangold, Nicolas, Gasnault, Olivier, Le Deit, Laetitia, Johnson, Jeff, Maurice, Sylvestre, Salvatore, Mark, Wiens, Roger C., Gasda, Patrick, & Rapin, William. Classification of igneous rocks analyzed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars. United States. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.01.014.
Cousin, Agnes, Sautter, Violaine, Payré, Valérie, Forni, Olivier, Mangold, Nicolas, Gasnault, Olivier, Le Deit, Laetitia, Johnson, Jeff, Maurice, Sylvestre, Salvatore, Mark, Wiens, Roger C., Gasda, Patrick, and Rapin, William. Thu . "Classification of igneous rocks analyzed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars". United States. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.01.014. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1412900.
@article{osti_1412900,
title = {Classification of igneous rocks analyzed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars},
author = {Cousin, Agnes and Sautter, Violaine and Payré, Valérie and Forni, Olivier and Mangold, Nicolas and Gasnault, Olivier and Le Deit, Laetitia and Johnson, Jeff and Maurice, Sylvestre and Salvatore, Mark and Wiens, Roger C. and Gasda, Patrick and Rapin, William},
abstractNote = {Several recent studies have revealed that Mars is not a simple basalt-covered planet, but has a more complex geological history. In Gale crater on Mars, the Curiosity rover discovered 59 igneous rocks. This article focuses on their textures (acquired from the cameras such as MAHLI and MastCam) and their geochemical compositions that have been obtained using the ChemCam instrument. Light-toned crystals have been observed in most of the rocks. They correspond to feldspars ranging from andesines/oligoclases to anorthoclases and sanidines in the leucocratic vesiculated rocks. Darker crystals observed in all igneous rocks (except the leucocratic vesiculated ones) were analyzed by LIBS and mainly identified as Fe-rich pigeonites and Fe-augites. Iron oxides have been observed in all groups whereas F-bearing minerals have been detected only in few of them. From their textural analysis and their whole-rock compositions, all these 59 igneous rocks have been classified in five different groups; from primitive rocks i.e. dark aphanitic basalts/basanites, trachybasalts, tephrites and fine/coarse-grained gabbros/norites to more evolved materials i.e. porphyritic trachyandesites, leucocratic trachytes and quartz-diorites. The basalts and gabbros are found all along the traverse of the rover, whereas the felsic rocks are located before the Kimberley formation, i.e. close to the Peace Vallis alluvial fan deposits. This suggests that these alkali rocks have been transported by fluvial activity and could come from the Northern rim of the crater, and may correspond to deeper strata buried under basaltic regolith (Sautter et al., 2015). Some of the basaltic igneous rocks are surprisingly enriched in iron, presenting low Mg# similar to the nakhlite parental melt that cannot be produced by direct melting of the Dreibus and Wanke (1986) martian primitive mantle. The basaltic rocks at Gale are thus different from Gusev basalts. They could originate from different mantle reservoirs, or they could have undergone a more extensive fractional crystallization. Lastly, Gale basaltic rocks could have been the parental magma of residual liquid extending into alkali field towards trachyte composition as magma fractionated under anhydrous condition on its way to the surface before sub adiabatic ascent.},
doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2017.01.014},
journal = {Icarus},
number = C,
volume = 288,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 09 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Feb 09 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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