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Title: Enabling Fast Charging - Introduction and Overview

Abstract

Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with guidance from VTO, initiated this study to understand the technical, cost, infrastructure, and implementation barriers associated with high rate charging up to 350 kW.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [2]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Argonne National Laboratory
  3. Idaho National Laboratory
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1408690
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-69053
Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Power Sources; Journal Volume: 367
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; hybrid electric vehicles; plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; battery electric vehicles; batteries

Citation Formats

Keyser, Matthew A, Markel, Anthony J, Meintz, Andrew L, Pesaran, Ahmad A, Zhang, Jiucai, Ahmed, Shabbir, Bloom, Ira, Burnham, Andrew, Jansen, Andrew N., Stephens, Thomas, Michelbacher, Christopher, Carlson, Barney, Dias, Fernando, Dufek, Eric J., Mohanpurkar, Manish, Scoffield, Don, Shirk, Matthew, Tanim, Tanvir, and Vijayagopal, Ram. Enabling Fast Charging - Introduction and Overview. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.08.008.
Keyser, Matthew A, Markel, Anthony J, Meintz, Andrew L, Pesaran, Ahmad A, Zhang, Jiucai, Ahmed, Shabbir, Bloom, Ira, Burnham, Andrew, Jansen, Andrew N., Stephens, Thomas, Michelbacher, Christopher, Carlson, Barney, Dias, Fernando, Dufek, Eric J., Mohanpurkar, Manish, Scoffield, Don, Shirk, Matthew, Tanim, Tanvir, & Vijayagopal, Ram. Enabling Fast Charging - Introduction and Overview. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.08.008.
Keyser, Matthew A, Markel, Anthony J, Meintz, Andrew L, Pesaran, Ahmad A, Zhang, Jiucai, Ahmed, Shabbir, Bloom, Ira, Burnham, Andrew, Jansen, Andrew N., Stephens, Thomas, Michelbacher, Christopher, Carlson, Barney, Dias, Fernando, Dufek, Eric J., Mohanpurkar, Manish, Scoffield, Don, Shirk, Matthew, Tanim, Tanvir, and Vijayagopal, Ram. 2017. "Enabling Fast Charging - Introduction and Overview". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.08.008.
@article{osti_1408690,
title = {Enabling Fast Charging - Introduction and Overview},
author = {Keyser, Matthew A and Markel, Anthony J and Meintz, Andrew L and Pesaran, Ahmad A and Zhang, Jiucai and Ahmed, Shabbir and Bloom, Ira and Burnham, Andrew and Jansen, Andrew N. and Stephens, Thomas and Michelbacher, Christopher and Carlson, Barney and Dias, Fernando and Dufek, Eric J. and Mohanpurkar, Manish and Scoffield, Don and Shirk, Matthew and Tanim, Tanvir and Vijayagopal, Ram},
abstractNote = {Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with guidance from VTO, initiated this study to understand the technical, cost, infrastructure, and implementation barriers associated with high rate charging up to 350 kW.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.08.008},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = ,
volume = 367,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}
  • The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable/validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.
  • The ability to charge battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on a time scale that is on par with the time to fuel an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) would remove a significant barrier to the adoption of BEVs. However, for viability, fast charging at this time scale needs to also occur at a price that is acceptable to consumers. Therefore, the cost drivers for both BEV owners and charging station providers are analyzed. In addition, key infrastructure considerations are examined, including grid stability and delivery of power, the design of fast charging stations and the design and use of electric vehiclemore » service equipment. Each of these aspects have technical barriers that need to be addressed, and are directly linked to economic impacts to use and implementation. This discussion focuses on both the economic and infrastructure issues which exist and need to be addressed for the effective implementation of fast charging at 400 kW and above. In so doing, it has been found that there is a distinct need to effectively manage the intermittent, high power demand of fast charging, strategically plan infrastructure corridors, and to further understand the cost of operation of charging infrastructure and BEVs.« less
  • Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell,more » the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today’s market. Here, thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.« less
  • To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficienciesmore » for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. Here, this work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.« less