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Title: Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Verifying CO 2 Containment Final Report CRADA No. TC-2036-02

Abstract

This collaborative effort was in support of the CO 2 Capture Project (CCP), to develop techniques that integrate overhead images of plant species, plant health, geological formations, soil types, aquatic, and human use spatial patterns for detection and discrimination of any CO 2 releases from underground storage formations. The goal of this work was to demonstrate advanced hyperspectral geobotanical remote sensing methods to assess potential leakage of CO 2 from underground storage. The timeframes and scales relevant to the long-term storage of CO 2 in the subsurface make remote sensing methods attractive. Moreover, it has been shown that individual field measurements of gas composition are subject to variability on extremely small temporal and spatial scales. The ability to verify ultimate reservoir integrity and to place individual surface measurements into context will be crucial to successful long-term monitoring and verification activities. The desired results were to produce a defined and tested procedure that could be easily used for long-term monitoring of possible CO 2 leakage from underground CO 2 sequestration sites. This testing standard will be utilized on behalf of the oil industry.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1399749
Report Number(s):
LLNL-TR-739174
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Pickles, W. L., and Ebrom, D. A. Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Verifying CO2 Containment Final Report CRADA No. TC-2036-02. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1399749.
Pickles, W. L., & Ebrom, D. A. Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Verifying CO2 Containment Final Report CRADA No. TC-2036-02. United States. doi:10.2172/1399749.
Pickles, W. L., and Ebrom, D. A. 2017. "Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Verifying CO2 Containment Final Report CRADA No. TC-2036-02". United States. doi:10.2172/1399749. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1399749.
@article{osti_1399749,
title = {Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Verifying CO2 Containment Final Report CRADA No. TC-2036-02},
author = {Pickles, W. L. and Ebrom, D. A.},
abstractNote = {This collaborative effort was in support of the CO2 Capture Project (CCP), to develop techniques that integrate overhead images of plant species, plant health, geological formations, soil types, aquatic, and human use spatial patterns for detection and discrimination of any CO2 releases from underground storage formations. The goal of this work was to demonstrate advanced hyperspectral geobotanical remote sensing methods to assess potential leakage of CO2 from underground storage. The timeframes and scales relevant to the long-term storage of CO2 in the subsurface make remote sensing methods attractive. Moreover, it has been shown that individual field measurements of gas composition are subject to variability on extremely small temporal and spatial scales. The ability to verify ultimate reservoir integrity and to place individual surface measurements into context will be crucial to successful long-term monitoring and verification activities. The desired results were to produce a defined and tested procedure that could be easily used for long-term monitoring of possible CO2 leakage from underground CO2 sequestration sites. This testing standard will be utilized on behalf of the oil industry.},
doi = {10.2172/1399749},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • This project's goal is to develop remote sensing methods for early detection and spatial mapping, over whole regions simultaneously, of any surface areas under which there are significant CO2 leaks from deep underground storage formations. If large amounts of CO2 gas percolated up from a storage formation below to within plant root depth of the surface, the CO2 soil concentrations near the surface would become elevated and would affect individual plants and their local plant ecologies. Excessive soil CO2 concentrations are observed to significantly affect local plant and animal ecologies in our geothermal exploration, remote sensing research program at Mammothmore » Mountain CA USA. We also know from our geothermal exploration remote sensing programs, that we can map subtle hidden faults by spatial signatures of altered minerals and of plant species and health distributions. Mapping hidden faults is important because in our experience these highly localized (one to several centimeters) spatial pathways are good candidates for potentially significant CO2 leaks from deep underground formations. The detection and discrimination method we are developing uses primarily airborne hyperspectral, high spatial (3 meter) with 128 band wavelength resolution, visible and near infrared reflected light imagery. We also are using the newly available ''Quickbird'' satellite imagery that has high spatial resolution (0.6 meter for panchromatic images, 2.4 meters for multispectral). We have a commercial provider, HyVista Corp of Sydney Australia, of airborne hyperspectral imagery acquisitions and very relevant image data post processing, so that eventually the ongoing surveillance of CO2 storage fields can be contracted for commercially. In this project we have imaged the Rangely Colorado Oil field and surrounding areas with an airborne hyperspectral visible and near infrared reflected light sensor. The images were analyzed by several methods using the suite of tools available in the ENVI commercial hyperspectral image processing software. We have also begun to use the high resolution (0.6 meter) commercial satellite QuickBird in our technology development. This hyperspectral imaging project for CO2 leakage monitoring has focused on using the extensive hyperspectral imagery set that we acquired of the Rangely CO enhanced oil recovery field in August 2002. We have accomplished extensive analysis of this imagery. We have created highly detailed maps of soil types, plant coverages, plant health, local ecologies or habitats, water conditions, and manmade objects throughout the entire Rangely Oil field and surrounding areas. The results were verified during a field trip to Rangely CO in August 2003. These maps establish an environmental and ecological baseline against which any future CO2 leakage effects on the plants, plant habitats, soils and water conditions can be detected and verified. We have also seen signatures that may be subtle hidden faults. If confirmed these faults might provide pathways for upward CO2 migration if that occurred at any time during the future. We have found a result that was unexpected, new to us, and potentially very important to the task of monitoring for CO2 that has leaked to within the plant root depths near the surface. The discovery is that one of our analysis techniques has picked out finely detailed mapping of local ecologies. Some of which are found to extend across the entire Rangely oil field and into the surrounding areas. These ecologies appear to be made up of a fairly narrow range of percentage admixtures of two or three very specific plant types and soil types. It is likely that any large amounts of CO2 reaching the root depth near the surface would begin to modify the shapes of the habitats. These habitat changes will be easy to detect by repeat imaging of the area. The habitat modification signature is probably detectable earlier following the start of CO2 build up in the soil, than looking for individual plant stress. We strongly recommend a long term research effort that will establish what CO2 soil concentration levels produce observable changes in the biosphere and the corresponding subtle and complex ecological distributions in various environments (including terrestrial and marine). This is an extremely important and highly relevant task for CCP SMV to pursue in our opinion.« less
  • Under this Agreement, NREL will work with the Participant to characterize wind resource assessment measurement systems needed for the design, construction, and integration of wind energy conversion systems to produce electricity for utility grid applications. This work includes, but is not limited to, research and development of hardware and software systems needed to advance wind energy resource assessment technology at speed and scale for use by electric utilities and wind power system integrators.
  • Under Contract Number DE-AC08-90NV10845, the DOE has funded the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to examine several aspects of remote sensing, specifically with respect to how its use might help support Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) activities at DOE sites located throughout the country. This report represents partial fulfillment of DRI`s obligations under that contract and includes a review of relevant literature associated with remote sensing studies and our evaluation and recommendation as to the applicability of various remote sensing techniques for DOE needs. With respect to DOE ERWM activities, remote sensing may be broadly defined as collecting information aboutmore » a target without actually being in physical contact with the object. As the common platforms for remote sensing observations are aircraft and satellites, there exists the possibility to rapidly and efficiently collect information over DOE sites that would allow for the identification and monitoring of contamination related to present and past activities. As DOE sites cover areas ranging from tens to hundreds of square miles, remote sensing may provide an effective, efficient, and economical method in support of ERWM activities. For this review, remote sensing has been limited to methods that employ electromagnetic (EM) energy as the means of detecting and measuring target characteristics.« less
  • A study was conducted over a 3 year period to investigate the utility of various remote sensing techniques for detection and monitoring of salt stress on vegetation. Predictive drift modeling was used for selecting areas which should be monitored around salt or brackish water cooling towers. Experimental vegetation plots with controlled salt mist applications were used to study the relationships between salt deposition, salt stress symptom development and detectability of the salt stress using remote sensing. Remote sensing techniques were also tested around operating cooling towers. False color infrared (FCIR) aerial photographs gave the best results of the methods testedmore » and areas of salt stress were found to be identifiable in the imagery.« less
  • The following significant results have been identified. Large areas covered by orbital photography allows the user to estimate the acreage of strip mining activity from a few frames. Infrared photography both in color and in black and white transparencies was found to be the best suited for this purpose. (GRA)