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Title: Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis

Abstract

In most living organisms, the amino acid proline is synthesized starting from both glutamate and ornithine. In prokaryotes, in the absence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase that has been identified to date only in a small number of soil and plant bacteria, these pathways share the last step, the reduction of delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) catalyzed by P5C reductase (EC 1.5.1.2). In several species, multiple forms of P5C reductase have been reported, possibly reflecting the dual function of proline. Aside from its common role as a building block of proteins, proline is indeed also involved in the cellular response to osmotic and oxidative stress conditions. Genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis identifies the presence of four genes (ProH, ProI, ProG, and ComER) that, based on bioinformatic and phylogenic studies, were defined as respectively coding a putative P5C reductase. Here we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, functional analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the four affinity-purified proteins. Results showed that two of them, namely ProI and ComER, lost their catalytic efficiency or underwent subfunctionalization. In the case of ComER, this could be likely explained by the loss of the ability to form a dimer, which has been previously shown to be an essential structuralmore » feature of the catalytically active P5C reductase. The properties of the two active enzymes are consistent with a constitutive role for ProG, and suggest that ProH expression may be beneficial to satisfy an increased need for proline.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Institutes of Health (NIH) - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; National Institutes of Health (NIH) - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); University of Ferrara
OSTI Identifier:
1393852
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Frontiers in Microbiology; Journal Volume: 8
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
isoenzyme properties; Bacillus subtilis; P5C reductase; oligomeric structure; product inhibition; proline synthesis; substrate ambiguity

Citation Formats

Forlani, Giuseppe, Nocek, Boguslaw, Chakravarthy, Srinivas, and Joachimiak, Andrzej. Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01442.
Forlani, Giuseppe, Nocek, Boguslaw, Chakravarthy, Srinivas, & Joachimiak, Andrzej. Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis. United States. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01442.
Forlani, Giuseppe, Nocek, Boguslaw, Chakravarthy, Srinivas, and Joachimiak, Andrzej. 2017. "Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis". United States. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01442.
@article{osti_1393852,
title = {Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis},
author = {Forlani, Giuseppe and Nocek, Boguslaw and Chakravarthy, Srinivas and Joachimiak, Andrzej},
abstractNote = {In most living organisms, the amino acid proline is synthesized starting from both glutamate and ornithine. In prokaryotes, in the absence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase that has been identified to date only in a small number of soil and plant bacteria, these pathways share the last step, the reduction of delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) catalyzed by P5C reductase (EC 1.5.1.2). In several species, multiple forms of P5C reductase have been reported, possibly reflecting the dual function of proline. Aside from its common role as a building block of proteins, proline is indeed also involved in the cellular response to osmotic and oxidative stress conditions. Genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis identifies the presence of four genes (ProH, ProI, ProG, and ComER) that, based on bioinformatic and phylogenic studies, were defined as respectively coding a putative P5C reductase. Here we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, functional analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the four affinity-purified proteins. Results showed that two of them, namely ProI and ComER, lost their catalytic efficiency or underwent subfunctionalization. In the case of ComER, this could be likely explained by the loss of the ability to form a dimer, which has been previously shown to be an essential structural feature of the catalytically active P5C reductase. The properties of the two active enzymes are consistent with a constitutive role for ProG, and suggest that ProH expression may be beneficial to satisfy an increased need for proline.},
doi = {10.3389/fmicb.2017.01442},
journal = {Frontiers in Microbiology},
number = ,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 8
}
  • In most living organisms, the amino acid proline is synthesized starting from both glutamate and ornithine. In prokaryotes, in the absence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase that has been identified to date only in a small number of soil and plant bacteria, these pathways share the last step, the reduction of δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) catalyzed by P5C reductase (EC 1.5.1.2). In several species, multiple forms of P5C reductase have been reported, possibly reflecting the dual function of proline. Aside from its common role as a building block of proteins, proline is indeed also involved in the cellular response to osmotic and oxidativemore » stress conditions. Genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis identifies the presence of four genes (ProH, ProI, ProG, and ComER) that, based on bioinformatic and phylogenic studies, were defined as respectively coding a putative P5C reductase. Here we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, functional analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the four affinity-purified proteins. Results showed that two of them, namely ProI and ComER, lost their catalytic efficiency or underwent subfunctionalization. In the case of ComER, this could be likely explained by the loss of the ability to form a dimer, which has been previously shown to be an essential structural feature of the catalytically active P5C reductase. The properties of the two active enzymes are consistent with a constitutive role for ProG, and suggest that ProH expression may be beneficial to satisfy an increased need for proline.« less
  • Proline plays a crucial role in cell growth and stress responses, and its accumulation is essential for the tolerance of adverse environmental conditions in plants. Two routes are used to biosynthesize proline in plants. The main route uses glutamate as a precursor, while in the other route proline is derived from ornithine. The terminal step of both pathways, the conversion of δ 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) to L-proline, is catalyzed by P5C reductase (P5CR) using NADH or NADPH as a cofactor. Since P5CRs are important housekeeping enzymes, they are conserved across all domains of life and appear to be relatively unaffected throughoutmore » evolution. However, global analysis of these enzymes unveiled significant functional diversity in the preference for cofactors (NADPH vs. NADH), variation in metal dependence and the differences in the oligomeric state. In our study we investigated evolutionary patterns through phylogenetic and structural analysis of P5CR representatives from all kingdoms of life, with emphasis on the plant species. We attempted to correlate local sequence/structure variation among the functionally and structurally characterized members of the family.« less
  • The majority of plant species accumulate high intracellular levels of proline to cope with hyperosmotic stress conditions. Proline synthesis from glutamate is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels, yet little is known about the mechanisms for post-translational regulation of the enzymatic activities involved. The gene coding in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) for δ 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the second and final step in this pathway, was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural and functional properties of the affinity-purified protein were characterized. As for most species, rice P5C reductase was ablemore » to use in vitro either NADH or NADPH as the electron donor. However, strikingly different effects of cations and anions were found depending on the pyridine nucleotide used, namely inhibition of NADH-dependent activity and stimulation of NADPH-dependent activity. Moreover, physiological concentrations of proline and NADP + were strongly inhibitory for the NADH-dependent reaction, whereas the NADPH-dependent activity was mildly affected. Our results suggest that only NADPH may be used in vivo and that stress-dependent variations in ion homeostasis and NADPH/NADP + ratio could modulate enzyme activity, being functional in promoting proline accumulation and potentially also adjusting NADPH consumption during the defense against hyperosmotic stress. The apparent molecular weight of the native protein observed in size exclusion chromatography indicated a high oligomerization state. We also report the first crystal structure of a plant P5C reductase at 3.40-Å resolution, showing a decameric quaternary assembly. It was possible to identify dynamic structural differences among rice, human, and bacterial enzymes.« less
  • No abstract prepared.