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Title: The primed SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin complex for neuronal exocytosis

Abstract

Synaptotagmin, complexin, and neuronal SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins mediate evoked synchronous neurotransmitter release, but the molecular mechanisms mediating the cooperation between these molecules remain unclear. Here we determine crystal structures of the primed pre-fusion SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin-1 complex. These structures reveal an unexpected tripartite interface between synaptotagmin-1 and both the SNARE complex and complexin. Simultaneously, a second synaptotagmin-1 molecule interacts with the other side of the SNARE complex via the previously identified primary interface. Mutations that disrupt either interface in solution also severely impair evoked synchronous release in neurons, suggesting that both interfaces are essential for the primed pre-fusion state. Ca2+ binding to the synaptotagmin-1 molecules unlocks the complex, allows full zippering of the SNARE complex, and triggers membrane fusion. The tripartite SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin-1 complex at a synaptic vesicle docking site has to be unlocked for triggered fusion to start, explaining the cooperation between complexin and synaptotagmin-1 in synchronizing evoked release on the sub-millisecond timescale.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
OSTI Identifier:
1390868
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 548; Journal Issue: 7668
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH

Citation Formats

Zhou, Qiangjun, Zhou, Peng, Wang, Austin L., Wu, Dick, Zhao, Minglei, Südhof, Thomas C., and Brunger, Axel T. The primed SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin complex for neuronal exocytosis. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/nature23484.
Zhou, Qiangjun, Zhou, Peng, Wang, Austin L., Wu, Dick, Zhao, Minglei, Südhof, Thomas C., & Brunger, Axel T. The primed SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin complex for neuronal exocytosis. United States. doi:10.1038/nature23484.
Zhou, Qiangjun, Zhou, Peng, Wang, Austin L., Wu, Dick, Zhao, Minglei, Südhof, Thomas C., and Brunger, Axel T. Wed . "The primed SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin complex for neuronal exocytosis". United States. doi:10.1038/nature23484.
@article{osti_1390868,
title = {The primed SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin complex for neuronal exocytosis},
author = {Zhou, Qiangjun and Zhou, Peng and Wang, Austin L. and Wu, Dick and Zhao, Minglei and Südhof, Thomas C. and Brunger, Axel T.},
abstractNote = {Synaptotagmin, complexin, and neuronal SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins mediate evoked synchronous neurotransmitter release, but the molecular mechanisms mediating the cooperation between these molecules remain unclear. Here we determine crystal structures of the primed pre-fusion SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin-1 complex. These structures reveal an unexpected tripartite interface between synaptotagmin-1 and both the SNARE complex and complexin. Simultaneously, a second synaptotagmin-1 molecule interacts with the other side of the SNARE complex via the previously identified primary interface. Mutations that disrupt either interface in solution also severely impair evoked synchronous release in neurons, suggesting that both interfaces are essential for the primed pre-fusion state. Ca2+ binding to the synaptotagmin-1 molecules unlocks the complex, allows full zippering of the SNARE complex, and triggers membrane fusion. The tripartite SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin-1 complex at a synaptic vesicle docking site has to be unlocked for triggered fusion to start, explaining the cooperation between complexin and synaptotagmin-1 in synchronizing evoked release on the sub-millisecond timescale.},
doi = {10.1038/nature23484},
journal = {Nature (London)},
number = 7668,
volume = 548,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Aug 16 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Aug 16 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Synaptotagmin, complexin, and neuronal SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins mediate evoked synchronous neurotransmitter release, but the molecular mechanisms mediating the cooperation between these molecules remain unclear. Here we determine crystal structures of the primed pre-fusion SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin-1 complex. These structures reveal an unexpected tripartite interface between synaptotagmin-1 and both the SNARE complex and complexin. Simultaneously, a second synaptotagmin-1 molecule interacts with the other side of the SNARE complex via the previously identified primary interface. Mutations that disrupt either interface in solution also severely impair evoked synchronous release in neurons, suggesting that both interfaces are essential for themore » primed pre-fusion state. Ca 2+ binding to the synaptotagmin-1 molecules unlocks the complex, allows full zippering of the SNARE complex, and triggers membrane fusion. In conclusion, the tripartite SNARE–complexin–synaptotagmin-1 complex at a synaptic vesicle docking site has to be unlocked for triggered fusion to start, explaining the cooperation between complexin and synaptotagmin-1 in synchronizing evoked release on the sub-millisecond timescale.« less
    Cited by 7
  • Synaptotagmin-1 and neuronal SNARE proteins have central roles in evoked synchronous neurotransmitter release; however, it is unknown how they cooperate to trigger synaptic vesicle fusion. We report atomic-resolution crystal structures of Ca 2+- and Mg 2+-bound complexes between synaptotagmin-1 and the neuronal SNARE complex, one of which was determined with diffraction data from an X-ray free-electron laser, leading to an atomic-resolution structure with accurate rotamer assignments for many side chains. The structures reveal several interfaces, including a large, specific, Ca 2+-independent and conserved interface. Tests of this interface by mutagenesis suggest that it is essential for Ca 2+-triggered neurotransmitter releasemore » in mouse hippocampal neuronal synapses and for Ca 2+-triggered vesicle fusion in a reconstituted system. Lastly, we propose that this interface forms before Ca 2+ triggering, moves en bloc as Ca 2+ influx promotes the interactions between synaptotagmin-1 and the plasma membrane, and consequently remodels the membrane to promote fusion, possibly in conjunction with other interfaces.« less
  • Synaptotagmin I (Syt I) is a Ca{sup 2+} sensor for triggering fast synchronized release of neurotransmitters. However, controversy remains whether Syt I is also obligatory for the exocytosis and endocytosis of larger dense core vesicles (LDCVs) in endocrine cells. In this study, we used a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to silence the expression of Syt I and investigated the roles of Syt I on exocytosis and endocytosis in INS-1 cells. Our results demonstrated that expression of Syt I is remarkably reduced by the Syt I gene targeting shRNA. Using high-time resolution capacitance measurement, we found that the silence of Sytmore » I decreased the calcium sensitivity of fusion of insulin granules and therefore reduced the exocytotic burst triggered by step-like [Ca{sup 2+}] {sub i} elevation. In addition, the occurrence frequency and amplitude of fast endocytosis were remarkably reduced in the silenced cells. We conclude that Syt I not only participates in the Ca{sup 2+}-sensing of LDCV fusion with plasmalemma, but also plays a crucial role in fast endocytosis in INS-1 cells.« less