skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A highly stretchable, transparent, and conductive polymer

Abstract

Previous breakthroughs in stretchable electronics stem from strain engineering and nanocomposite approaches. Routes toward intrinsically stretchable molecular materials remain scarce but, if successful, will enable simpler fabrication processes, such as direct printing and coating, mechanically robust devices, and more intimate contact with objects. We report a highly stretchable conducting polymer, realized with a range of enhancers that serve a dual function: (i) they change morphology and (ii) they act as conductivity-enhancing dopants in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The polymer films exhibit conductivities comparable to the best reported values for PEDOT:PSS, with over 3100 S/cm under 0% strain and over 4100 S/cm under 100% strain—among the highest for reported stretchable conductors. It is highly durable under cyclic loading, with the conductivity maintained at 3600 S/cm even after 1000 cycles to 100% strain. The conductivity remained above 100 S/cm under 600% strain, with a fracture strain of 800%, which is superior to even the best silver nanowire– or carbon nanotube–based stretchable conductor films. As a result, the combination of excellent electrical and mechanical properties allowed it to serve as interconnects for field-effect transistor arrays with a device density that is five times higher than typical lithographically patterned wavy interconnects.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Gyeonggi-do (South Korea)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1390325
Grant/Contract Number:  
ID0EMNAK13699; FA9550-15-1-0106; ID0E4RAK13700; CMMI-1553638; ID0EEXAK13701; AC02-76SF00515; ID0E11AK13702
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2375-2548
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; stretchable electronics; conducting polymer; transparent electrode; plasticizer; ionic dopant; soft interface; rigid-island; field-effect transistors; polymer characterization; patterning

Citation Formats

Wang, Yue, Zhu, Chenxin, Pfattner, Raphael, Yan, Hongping, Jin, Lihua, Chen, Shucheng, Molina-Lopez, Francisco, Lissel, Franziska, Liu, Jia, Rabiah, Noelle I., Chen, Zheng, Chung, Jong Won, Linder, Christian, Toney, Michael F., Murmann, Boris, and Bao, Zhenan. A highly stretchable, transparent, and conductive polymer. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1602076.
Wang, Yue, Zhu, Chenxin, Pfattner, Raphael, Yan, Hongping, Jin, Lihua, Chen, Shucheng, Molina-Lopez, Francisco, Lissel, Franziska, Liu, Jia, Rabiah, Noelle I., Chen, Zheng, Chung, Jong Won, Linder, Christian, Toney, Michael F., Murmann, Boris, & Bao, Zhenan. A highly stretchable, transparent, and conductive polymer. United States. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1602076
Wang, Yue, Zhu, Chenxin, Pfattner, Raphael, Yan, Hongping, Jin, Lihua, Chen, Shucheng, Molina-Lopez, Francisco, Lissel, Franziska, Liu, Jia, Rabiah, Noelle I., Chen, Zheng, Chung, Jong Won, Linder, Christian, Toney, Michael F., Murmann, Boris, and Bao, Zhenan. Fri . "A highly stretchable, transparent, and conductive polymer". United States. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1602076. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1390325.
@article{osti_1390325,
title = {A highly stretchable, transparent, and conductive polymer},
author = {Wang, Yue and Zhu, Chenxin and Pfattner, Raphael and Yan, Hongping and Jin, Lihua and Chen, Shucheng and Molina-Lopez, Francisco and Lissel, Franziska and Liu, Jia and Rabiah, Noelle I. and Chen, Zheng and Chung, Jong Won and Linder, Christian and Toney, Michael F. and Murmann, Boris and Bao, Zhenan},
abstractNote = {Previous breakthroughs in stretchable electronics stem from strain engineering and nanocomposite approaches. Routes toward intrinsically stretchable molecular materials remain scarce but, if successful, will enable simpler fabrication processes, such as direct printing and coating, mechanically robust devices, and more intimate contact with objects. We report a highly stretchable conducting polymer, realized with a range of enhancers that serve a dual function: (i) they change morphology and (ii) they act as conductivity-enhancing dopants in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The polymer films exhibit conductivities comparable to the best reported values for PEDOT:PSS, with over 3100 S/cm under 0% strain and over 4100 S/cm under 100% strain—among the highest for reported stretchable conductors. It is highly durable under cyclic loading, with the conductivity maintained at 3600 S/cm even after 1000 cycles to 100% strain. The conductivity remained above 100 S/cm under 600% strain, with a fracture strain of 800%, which is superior to even the best silver nanowire– or carbon nanotube–based stretchable conductor films. As a result, the combination of excellent electrical and mechanical properties allowed it to serve as interconnects for field-effect transistor arrays with a device density that is five times higher than typical lithographically patterned wavy interconnects.},
doi = {10.1126/sciadv.1602076},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1390325}, journal = {Science Advances},
issn = {2375-2548},
number = 3,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 156 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Stretchable Inorganic-Semiconductor Electronic Systems
journal, April 2011


Lateral buckling and mechanical stretchability of fractal interconnects partially bonded onto an elastomeric substrate
journal, March 2015


Spectroelectrochemical studies of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in aqueous medium
journal, December 2001


Charge-carrier concentration dependence of the hopping mobility in organic materials with Gaussian disorder
journal, October 2005


Stretchable nanoparticle conductors with self-organized conductive pathways
journal, July 2013


Stretchable and Foldable Silicon Integrated Circuits
journal, April 2008


A kirigami approach to engineering elasticity in nanocomposites through patterned defects
journal, June 2015


Continuous and Scalable Fabrication of Transparent Conducting Carbon Nanotube Films
journal, March 2009


Ionic/Electronic Conducting Characteristics of LiFePO[sub 4] Cathode Materials
journal, January 2007


Highly Stable Carbon Nanotube Top-Gate Transistors with Tunable Threshold Voltage
journal, May 2014


Deviations of the glass transition temperature in amorphous conjugated polymer thin films
journal, August 2013


Skin-like pressure and strain sensors based on transparent elastic films of carbon nanotubes
journal, October 2011


In Situ Spectroelectrochemical Raman Studies of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDT)
journal, October 1999


Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Electrode with Optimized Solvent and Thermal Post-Treatment for ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells
journal, February 2011


Highly Stretchable Transistors Using a Microcracked Organic Semiconductor
journal, April 2014


Molecularly Stretchable Electronics
journal, May 2014


Electronic Properties of Transparent Conductive Films of PEDOT:PSS on Stretchable Substrates
journal, December 2011


Ultrahigh electrical conductivity in solution-sheared polymeric transparent films
journal, October 2015


Highly Stretchable and Conductive Polymer Material Made from Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and Polyurethane Elastomers
journal, August 2007


Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability
journal, January 2011


Nanomaterial-Enabled Stretchable Conductors: Strategies, Materials and Devices
journal, January 2015


Conducting Polymer Dough for Deformable Electronics
journal, October 2015


Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Photoconductors a Monte Carlo Simulation Study
journal, January 1993


Materials for stretchable electronics
journal, March 2012


Stretchable Electronics: Materials Strategies and Devices
journal, December 2008


Role of Interchain Coupling in the Metallic State of Conducting Polymers
journal, September 2012


Printable elastic conductors with a high conductivity for electronic textile applications
journal, June 2015


Localization of Folds and Cracks in Thin Metal Films Coated on Flexible Elastomer Foams
journal, April 2013


25th Anniversary Article: The Evolution of Electronic Skin (E-Skin): A Brief History, Design Considerations, and Recent Progress
journal, October 2013


Universal Arrhenius Temperature Activated Charge Transport in Diodes from Disordered Organic Semiconductors
journal, February 2008


Charge-carrier transport in disordered organic solids
journal, September 2000


Stretchable Energy Storage and Conversion Devices
journal, January 2014


A Rubberlike Stretchable Active Matrix Using Elastic Conductors
journal, September 2008


Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Nanofibrils Induced by Solution-Processed Crystallization
journal, December 2013


Plasticization of PEDOT:PSS by Common Additives for Mechanically Robust Organic Solar Cells and Wearable Sensors
journal, November 2014


The Crystallization of PEDOT:PSS Polymeric Electrodes Probed In Situ during Printing
journal, April 2015


Structural aspects of electrochemical doping and dedoping of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)
journal, June 2000


Highly conductive, printable and stretchable composite films of carbon nanotubes and silver
journal, November 2010


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Materials and structural designs of stretchable conductors
    journal, January 2019


    Hydrogel bioelectronics
    journal, January 2019


    A square tubular conducting polymer actuator for smart catheter application
    journal, October 2019


    Materials and Structures toward Soft Electronics
    journal, August 2018


    Wearable and flexible sensors for user-interactive health-monitoring devices
    journal, January 2018


    Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Digital Healthcare
    journal, June 2019


    Conductive polymers for stretchable supercapacitors
    journal, January 2019


    A synergetic layered inorganic–organic hybrid film for conductive, flexible, and transparent electrodes
    journal, May 2019


    Promoting Role of MXene Nanosheets in Biomedical Sciences: Therapeutic and Biosensing Innovations
    journal, October 2018


    Flexible transparent conducting electrodes based on metal meshes for organic optoelectronic device applications: a review
    journal, January 2019


    Highly stretchable polymer conductors based on as-prepared PEDOT:PSA/ n -PAA hydrogels
    journal, January 2018


    Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Polyethylene Molecular Crystals from First-Principles Including Nuclear Quantum Effects
    journal, October 2017


    Influence of perfluorinated ionomer in PEDOT:PSS on the rectification and degradation of organic photovoltaic cells
    journal, January 2018


    Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array
    journal, February 2018


    Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Digital Healthcare
    journal, June 2019


    Highly sensitive, durable and stretchable plastic strain sensors using sandwich structures of PEDOT:PSS and an elastomer
    journal, January 2018


    High‐Transconductance Stretchable Transistors Achieved by Controlled Gold Microcrack Morphology
    journal, July 2019


    Elastic and conductive hydrogel electrodes
    journal, January 2019


    Extremely Vivid, Highly Transparent, and Ultrathin Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes
    journal, October 2017


    Highly Elastic and >200% Reversibly Stretchable Down‐Conversion White Light‐Emitting Diodes Based on Quantum Dot Gel Emitters
    journal, February 2020


    3D printing of conjugated polymers
    journal, August 2019


    Highly Flexible and Efficient All-Polymer Solar Cells with High-Viscosity Processing Polymer Additive toward Potential of Stretchable Devices
    journal, September 2018


    Mechanically Interlocked Hydrogel–Elastomer Hybrids for On‐Skin Electronics
    journal, February 2020


    Kirigami-Inspired Nanoconfined Polymer Conducting Nanosheets with 2000% Stretchability
    journal, March 2018


    Highly transparent and flexible circuits through patterning silver nanowires into microfluidic channels
    journal, January 2018


    Soft‐Matter Engineering for Soft Robotics
    journal, December 2018


    Ion Electron–Coupled Functionality in Materials and Devices Based on Conjugated Polymers
    journal, January 2019


    Soft and elastic hydrogel-based microelectronics for localized low-voltage neuromodulation
    journal, January 2019


    Wet stable transparent flexible sensor: long-term resistance to ultrasonication shock
    journal, September 2019


    Blending Electronics with the Human Body: A Pathway toward a Cybernetic Future
    journal, August 2018


    Toward Programmable Materials for Wearable Electronics: Electrical Welding Turns Sensors into Conductors
    journal, September 2018


    Assembling polymeric silver nanowires for transparent conductive cellulose nanopaper
    journal, January 2019


    Screen-printed soft triboelectric nanogenerator with porous PDMS and stretchable PEDOT:PSS electrode
    journal, November 2019


    Flexible and Stretchable Smart Display: Materials, Fabrication, Device Design, and System Integration
    journal, July 2018


    The Role of Mineral Acid Doping of PEDOT:PSS and Its Application in Organic Photovoltaics
    journal, November 2019


    Recent Progress and Future Prospects of 2D-Based Photodetectors
    journal, July 2018


    Emerging Soft Conductors for Bioelectronic Interfaces
    journal, November 2019


    Stretchable Transparent Conductive Films from Long Carbon Nanotube Metals
    journal, August 2018


    Buckled Structures: Fabrication and Applications in Wearable Electronics
    journal, February 2019


    Hydrogel‐Enabled Transfer‐Printing of Conducting Polymer Films for Soft Organic Bioelectronics
    journal, November 2019


    Stretchable Transparent Conductors: from Micro/Macromechanics to Applications
    journal, June 2019


    Reliable interfaces for EGaIn multi-layer stretchable circuits and microelectronics
    journal, January 2019


    Highly stretchable and conductive fibers enabled by liquid metal dip-coating
    journal, February 2018


    Laser‐Assisted Strain Engineering of Thin Elastomer Films to Form Variable Wavy Substrates for Cell Culture
    journal, April 2019


    Highly Flexible and Efficient All-Polymer Solar Cells with High-Viscosity Processing Polymer Additive toward Potential of Stretchable Devices
    journal, September 2018


    Organic semiconductors for biological sensing
    journal, January 2019


    Water Transfer Printing Enhanced by Water‐Induced Pattern Expansion: Toward Large‐Area 3D Electronics
    journal, February 2019


    Design of solvent-free functional fluids via molecular nanoarchitectonics approaches
    journal, January 2019


    Fabric Organic Electrochemical Transistors for Biosensors
    journal, April 2018


    Self‐Healing and Stretchable 3D‐Printed Organic Thermoelectrics
    journal, October 2019


    Deformable and Stretchable Electrodes for Soft Electronic Devices
    journal, July 2019


    Advanced electronic skin devices for healthcare applications
    journal, January 2019


    Scalable nanomanufacturing of inkjet-printed wearable energy storage devices
    journal, January 2019


    PEDOT:PSS for Flexible and Stretchable Electronics: Modifications, Strategies, and Applications
    journal, July 2019


    Strategies for Designing Stretchable Strain Sensors and Conductors
    journal, December 2019


    Customization of Conductive Elastomer Based on PVA/PEI for Stretchable Sensors
    journal, January 2020


    Over-Stretching Tolerant Conductors on Rubber Films by Inkjet-Printing Silver Nanoparticles for Wearables
    journal, December 2018


    High‐Transconductance Stretchable Transistors Achieved by Controlled Gold Microcrack Morphology
    journal, July 2019


    Triple cation perovskite doped with the small molecule F4TCNQ for highly efficient stable photodetectors
    journal, January 2020


    The contraction of PEDOT films formed on a macromolecular liquid-like surface
    journal, January 2018


    Ultracompliant Carbon Nanotube Direct Bladder Device
    journal, September 2019


    Nonthrombogenic, stretchable, active multielectrode array for electroanatomical mapping
    journal, October 2018


    Electrospinning-induced elastomeric properties of conjugated polymers for extremely stretchable nanofibers and rubbery optoelectronics
    journal, January 2020


    Scalable nanomanufacturing of inkjet-printed wearable energy storage devices
    journal, January 2019


    Untethered soft robotics
    journal, February 2018