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Title: Mix and hydrodynamic instabilities on NIF

Abstract

Several new platforms have been developed to experimentally measure hydrodynamic instabilities in all phases of indirect-drive, inertial confinement fusion implosions on National Ignition Facility. At the ablation front, instability growth of pre-imposed modulations was measured with a face-on, x-ray radiography platform in the linear regime using the Hydrodynamic Growth Radiography (HGR) platform. Modulation growth of "native roughness" modulations and engineering features (fill tubes and capsule support membranes) were measured in conditions relevant to layered DT implosions. A new experimental platform was developed to measure instability growth at the ablator-ice interface. Here in the deceleration phase of implosions, several experimental platforms were developed to measure both low-mode asymmetries and high-mode perturbations near peak compression with x-ray and nuclear techniques. In one innovative technique, the self-emission from the hot spot was enhanced with argon dopant to "self-backlight" the shell in-flight. To stabilize instability growth, new "adiabat-shaping" techniques were developed using the HGR platform and applied in layered DT implosions.

Authors:
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  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  4. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1378520
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-728861
Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344; NA0001808
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Instrumentation
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 06; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION

Citation Formats

Smalyuk, V. A., Robey, H. F., Casey, D. T., Clark, D. S., Döppner, T., Haan, S. W., Hammel, B. A., MacPhee, A. G., Martinez, D., Milovich, J. L., Peterson, J. L., Pickworth, L., Pino, J. E., Raman, K., Tipton, R., Weber, C. R., Baker, K. L., Bachmann, B., Hopkins, L. F. Berzak, Bond, E., Caggiano, J. A., Callahan, D. A., Celliers, P. M., Cerjan, C., Dixit, S. N., Edwards, M. J., Felker, S., Field, J. E., Fittinghoff, D. N., Gharibyan, N., Grim, G. P., Hamza, A. V., Hatarik, R., Hohenberger, M., Hsing, W. W., Hurricane, O. A., Jancaitis, K. S., Jones, O. S., Khan, S., Kroll, J. J., Lafortune, K. N., Landen, O. L., Ma, T., MacGowan, B. J., Masse, L., Moore, A. S., Nagel, S. R., Nikroo, A., Pak, A., Patel, P. K., Remington, B. A., Sayre, D. B., Spears, B. K., Stadermann, M., Tommasini, R., Widmayer, C. C., Yeamans, C. B., Crippen, J., Farrell, M., Giraldez, E., Rice, N., Wilde, C. H., Volegov, P. L., and Johnson, M. Gatu. Mix and hydrodynamic instabilities on NIF. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/12/06/C06001.
Smalyuk, V. A., Robey, H. F., Casey, D. T., Clark, D. S., Döppner, T., Haan, S. W., Hammel, B. A., MacPhee, A. G., Martinez, D., Milovich, J. L., Peterson, J. L., Pickworth, L., Pino, J. E., Raman, K., Tipton, R., Weber, C. R., Baker, K. L., Bachmann, B., Hopkins, L. F. Berzak, Bond, E., Caggiano, J. A., Callahan, D. A., Celliers, P. M., Cerjan, C., Dixit, S. N., Edwards, M. J., Felker, S., Field, J. E., Fittinghoff, D. N., Gharibyan, N., Grim, G. P., Hamza, A. V., Hatarik, R., Hohenberger, M., Hsing, W. W., Hurricane, O. A., Jancaitis, K. S., Jones, O. S., Khan, S., Kroll, J. J., Lafortune, K. N., Landen, O. L., Ma, T., MacGowan, B. J., Masse, L., Moore, A. S., Nagel, S. R., Nikroo, A., Pak, A., Patel, P. K., Remington, B. A., Sayre, D. B., Spears, B. K., Stadermann, M., Tommasini, R., Widmayer, C. C., Yeamans, C. B., Crippen, J., Farrell, M., Giraldez, E., Rice, N., Wilde, C. H., Volegov, P. L., & Johnson, M. Gatu. Mix and hydrodynamic instabilities on NIF. United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/12/06/C06001.
Smalyuk, V. A., Robey, H. F., Casey, D. T., Clark, D. S., Döppner, T., Haan, S. W., Hammel, B. A., MacPhee, A. G., Martinez, D., Milovich, J. L., Peterson, J. L., Pickworth, L., Pino, J. E., Raman, K., Tipton, R., Weber, C. R., Baker, K. L., Bachmann, B., Hopkins, L. F. Berzak, Bond, E., Caggiano, J. A., Callahan, D. A., Celliers, P. M., Cerjan, C., Dixit, S. N., Edwards, M. J., Felker, S., Field, J. E., Fittinghoff, D. N., Gharibyan, N., Grim, G. P., Hamza, A. V., Hatarik, R., Hohenberger, M., Hsing, W. W., Hurricane, O. A., Jancaitis, K. S., Jones, O. S., Khan, S., Kroll, J. J., Lafortune, K. N., Landen, O. L., Ma, T., MacGowan, B. J., Masse, L., Moore, A. S., Nagel, S. R., Nikroo, A., Pak, A., Patel, P. K., Remington, B. A., Sayre, D. B., Spears, B. K., Stadermann, M., Tommasini, R., Widmayer, C. C., Yeamans, C. B., Crippen, J., Farrell, M., Giraldez, E., Rice, N., Wilde, C. H., Volegov, P. L., and Johnson, M. Gatu. Thu . "Mix and hydrodynamic instabilities on NIF". United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/12/06/C06001.
@article{osti_1378520,
title = {Mix and hydrodynamic instabilities on NIF},
author = {Smalyuk, V. A. and Robey, H. F. and Casey, D. T. and Clark, D. S. and Döppner, T. and Haan, S. W. and Hammel, B. A. and MacPhee, A. G. and Martinez, D. and Milovich, J. L. and Peterson, J. L. and Pickworth, L. and Pino, J. E. and Raman, K. and Tipton, R. and Weber, C. R. and Baker, K. L. and Bachmann, B. and Hopkins, L. F. Berzak and Bond, E. and Caggiano, J. A. and Callahan, D. A. and Celliers, P. M. and Cerjan, C. and Dixit, S. N. and Edwards, M. J. and Felker, S. and Field, J. E. and Fittinghoff, D. N. and Gharibyan, N. and Grim, G. P. and Hamza, A. V. and Hatarik, R. and Hohenberger, M. and Hsing, W. W. and Hurricane, O. A. and Jancaitis, K. S. and Jones, O. S. and Khan, S. and Kroll, J. J. and Lafortune, K. N. and Landen, O. L. and Ma, T. and MacGowan, B. J. and Masse, L. and Moore, A. S. and Nagel, S. R. and Nikroo, A. and Pak, A. and Patel, P. K. and Remington, B. A. and Sayre, D. B. and Spears, B. K. and Stadermann, M. and Tommasini, R. and Widmayer, C. C. and Yeamans, C. B. and Crippen, J. and Farrell, M. and Giraldez, E. and Rice, N. and Wilde, C. H. and Volegov, P. L. and Johnson, M. Gatu},
abstractNote = {Several new platforms have been developed to experimentally measure hydrodynamic instabilities in all phases of indirect-drive, inertial confinement fusion implosions on National Ignition Facility. At the ablation front, instability growth of pre-imposed modulations was measured with a face-on, x-ray radiography platform in the linear regime using the Hydrodynamic Growth Radiography (HGR) platform. Modulation growth of "native roughness" modulations and engineering features (fill tubes and capsule support membranes) were measured in conditions relevant to layered DT implosions. A new experimental platform was developed to measure instability growth at the ablator-ice interface. Here in the deceleration phase of implosions, several experimental platforms were developed to measure both low-mode asymmetries and high-mode perturbations near peak compression with x-ray and nuclear techniques. In one innovative technique, the self-emission from the hot spot was enhanced with argon dopant to "self-backlight" the shell in-flight. To stabilize instability growth, new "adiabat-shaping" techniques were developed using the HGR platform and applied in layered DT implosions.},
doi = {10.1088/1748-0221/12/06/C06001},
journal = {Journal of Instrumentation},
number = 06,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • The goals of the Mix Campaign are to determine how mix affects performance, locate the "mix cliff", locate the source of the mix, and develop mitigation methods that allow performance to be increased. We have used several different drive pulse shapes and capsule designs in the Mix Campaign, to understand sensitivity to drive peak power, level of coast, rise time to peak power, adiabat, and dopant level in the capsule. Ablator material mixing into the hot spot has been shown conclusively with x-ray spectroscopy. The observed neutron yield drops steeply when the hot spot mix mass becomes too large. Themore » mix appears to be driven by ablation- front Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. A high foot, higher adiabat drive has a more stable ablation front and has allowed the mix mass in the hot spot to be reduced significantly. We found two recent high foot shots achieved neutron yields > 10 15 and measured neutron yield over clean 1D simulation (YOC) > 50%, which was one of the central goals of the Mix Campaign.« less
  • Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding 2 a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraummore » x-ray drive. Richtmyer–Meshkov and Rayleigh–Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode (50 < t < 200) ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium–hydrogen–deuterium (THD) and DT cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a massequivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code, is typically below the 75 ng allowance for hot-spot mix. Furthermore, predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.« less
  • Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DTmore » ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive [D. S. Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052703 (2010)]. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode () ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase [B. A. Hammel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056310 (2011)]. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot-mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code [J. J. MacFarlane et al., High Energy Density Phys. 3, 181 (2006)], is typically below the 75-ng allowance for hot-spot mix [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.« less