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Title: Synchrotron x-ray study of a low roughness and high efficiency K 2 CsSb photocathode during film growth

Abstract

Reduction of roughness to the nm level is critical of achieving the ultimate performance from photocathodes used in high gradient fields. The thrust of this paper is to explore the evolution of roughness during sequential growth, and to show that deposition of multilayer structures consisting of very thin reacted layers results in an nm level smooth photocathode. Synchrotron x-ray methods were applied to study the multi-step growth process of a high efficiency K 2 CsSb photocathode. A transition point of the Sb film grown on Si was observed at the film thickness of ~40 Å with the substrate temperature at 100 °C and the growth rate at 0.1 Å s -1 . The final K 2 CsSb photocathode exhibits a thickness of around five times that of the total deposited Sb film regardless of how the Sb film was grown. The film surface roughening process occurs first at the step when K diffuses into the crystalline Sb. The photocathode obtained from the multi-step growth exhibits roughness in an order of magnitude lower than the normal sequential process. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the material goes through two structural changes of the crystalline phase during formation, from crystalline Sb to Kmore » 3 Sb and finally to K 2 CsSb.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [5];  [5];  [6]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  5. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  6. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
OSTI Identifier:
1374541
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1379817
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; AC02-05CH11231; AC02-98CH10886; KC0407-ALSJNT-I0013; SC0005713; DMR-1332208
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Physics. D, Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 50; Journal Issue: 20; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-3727
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; bialkali antimonide photocathode; grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering; thickness; roughness; critical angle; structure; x-ray diffraction; x-ray reflectivity; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Xie, Junqi, Demarteau, Marcel, Wagner, Robert, Schubert, Susanne, Gaowei, Mengjia, Attenkofer, Klaus, Walsh, John, Smedley, John, Wong, Jared, Feng, Jun, Padmore, Howard, Ruiz-Oses, Miguel, Ding, Zihao, Liang, Xue, Muller, Erik, and Ben-Zvi, Ilan. Synchrotron x-ray study of a low roughness and high efficiency K 2 CsSb photocathode during film growth. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1088/1361-6463/aa6882.
Xie, Junqi, Demarteau, Marcel, Wagner, Robert, Schubert, Susanne, Gaowei, Mengjia, Attenkofer, Klaus, Walsh, John, Smedley, John, Wong, Jared, Feng, Jun, Padmore, Howard, Ruiz-Oses, Miguel, Ding, Zihao, Liang, Xue, Muller, Erik, & Ben-Zvi, Ilan. Synchrotron x-ray study of a low roughness and high efficiency K 2 CsSb photocathode during film growth. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aa6882
Xie, Junqi, Demarteau, Marcel, Wagner, Robert, Schubert, Susanne, Gaowei, Mengjia, Attenkofer, Klaus, Walsh, John, Smedley, John, Wong, Jared, Feng, Jun, Padmore, Howard, Ruiz-Oses, Miguel, Ding, Zihao, Liang, Xue, Muller, Erik, and Ben-Zvi, Ilan. Mon . "Synchrotron x-ray study of a low roughness and high efficiency K 2 CsSb photocathode during film growth". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aa6882. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1374541.
@article{osti_1374541,
title = {Synchrotron x-ray study of a low roughness and high efficiency K 2 CsSb photocathode during film growth},
author = {Xie, Junqi and Demarteau, Marcel and Wagner, Robert and Schubert, Susanne and Gaowei, Mengjia and Attenkofer, Klaus and Walsh, John and Smedley, John and Wong, Jared and Feng, Jun and Padmore, Howard and Ruiz-Oses, Miguel and Ding, Zihao and Liang, Xue and Muller, Erik and Ben-Zvi, Ilan},
abstractNote = {Reduction of roughness to the nm level is critical of achieving the ultimate performance from photocathodes used in high gradient fields. The thrust of this paper is to explore the evolution of roughness during sequential growth, and to show that deposition of multilayer structures consisting of very thin reacted layers results in an nm level smooth photocathode. Synchrotron x-ray methods were applied to study the multi-step growth process of a high efficiency K 2 CsSb photocathode. A transition point of the Sb film grown on Si was observed at the film thickness of ~40 Å with the substrate temperature at 100 °C and the growth rate at 0.1 Å s -1 . The final K 2 CsSb photocathode exhibits a thickness of around five times that of the total deposited Sb film regardless of how the Sb film was grown. The film surface roughening process occurs first at the step when K diffuses into the crystalline Sb. The photocathode obtained from the multi-step growth exhibits roughness in an order of magnitude lower than the normal sequential process. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the material goes through two structural changes of the crystalline phase during formation, from crystalline Sb to K 3 Sb and finally to K 2 CsSb.},
doi = {10.1088/1361-6463/aa6882},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1374541}, journal = {Journal of Physics. D, Applied Physics},
issn = {0022-3727},
number = 20,
volume = 50,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {4}
}

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    Fast-timing microchannel plate photodetectors: Design, fabrication, and characterization
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    Free-Standing Bialkali Photocathodes Using Atomically Thin Substrates
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