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Title: X-ray radiography of cavitation in a beryllium alloy nozzle

Abstract

In this study, making quantitative measurements of the vapor distribution in a cavitating nozzle is difficult, owing to the strong scattering of visible light at gas–liquid boundaries and wall boundaries, and the small lengths and time scales involved. The transparent models required for optical experiments are also limited in terms of maximum pressure and operating life. Over the past few years, x-ray radiography experiments at Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source have demonstrated the ability to perform quantitative measurements of the line of sight projected vapor fraction in submerged, cavitating plastic nozzles. In this paper, we present the results of new radiography experiments performed on a submerged beryllium nozzle which is 520 μm in diameter, with a length/diameter ratio of 6. Beryllium is a light, hard metal that is very transparent to x-rays due to its low atomic number. We present quantitative measurements of cavitation vapor distribution conducted over a range of non-dimensional cavitation and Reynolds numbers, up to values typical of gasoline and diesel fuel injectors. A novel aspect of this work is the ability to quantitatively measure the area contraction along the nozzle with high spatial resolution. Analysis of the vapor distribution, area contraction and discharge coefficients are made betweenmore » the beryllium nozzle and plastic nozzles of the same nominal geometry. When gas is dissolved in the fuel, the vapor distribution can be quite different from that found in plastic nozzles of the same dimensions, although the discharge coefficients are unaffected. In the beryllium nozzle, there were substantially fewer machining defects to act as nucleation sites for the precipitation of bubbles from dissolved gases in the fuel, and as such the effect on the vapor distribution was greatly reduced.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad (MINECO); Fulbright Program; USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1373904
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Engine Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 1-2; Journal ID: ISSN 1468-0874
Publisher:
SAGE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; cavitation; radiography; x-ray

Citation Formats

Duke, Daniel J., Matusik, Katarzyna E., Kastengren, Alan L., Swantek, Andrew B., Sovis, Nicholas, Payri, Raul, Viera, Juan P., and Powell, Christopher F. X-ray radiography of cavitation in a beryllium alloy nozzle. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1177/1468087416685965.
Duke, Daniel J., Matusik, Katarzyna E., Kastengren, Alan L., Swantek, Andrew B., Sovis, Nicholas, Payri, Raul, Viera, Juan P., & Powell, Christopher F. X-ray radiography of cavitation in a beryllium alloy nozzle. United States. doi:10.1177/1468087416685965.
Duke, Daniel J., Matusik, Katarzyna E., Kastengren, Alan L., Swantek, Andrew B., Sovis, Nicholas, Payri, Raul, Viera, Juan P., and Powell, Christopher F. Tue . "X-ray radiography of cavitation in a beryllium alloy nozzle". United States. doi:10.1177/1468087416685965. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1373904.
@article{osti_1373904,
title = {X-ray radiography of cavitation in a beryllium alloy nozzle},
author = {Duke, Daniel J. and Matusik, Katarzyna E. and Kastengren, Alan L. and Swantek, Andrew B. and Sovis, Nicholas and Payri, Raul and Viera, Juan P. and Powell, Christopher F.},
abstractNote = {In this study, making quantitative measurements of the vapor distribution in a cavitating nozzle is difficult, owing to the strong scattering of visible light at gas–liquid boundaries and wall boundaries, and the small lengths and time scales involved. The transparent models required for optical experiments are also limited in terms of maximum pressure and operating life. Over the past few years, x-ray radiography experiments at Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source have demonstrated the ability to perform quantitative measurements of the line of sight projected vapor fraction in submerged, cavitating plastic nozzles. In this paper, we present the results of new radiography experiments performed on a submerged beryllium nozzle which is 520 μm in diameter, with a length/diameter ratio of 6. Beryllium is a light, hard metal that is very transparent to x-rays due to its low atomic number. We present quantitative measurements of cavitation vapor distribution conducted over a range of non-dimensional cavitation and Reynolds numbers, up to values typical of gasoline and diesel fuel injectors. A novel aspect of this work is the ability to quantitatively measure the area contraction along the nozzle with high spatial resolution. Analysis of the vapor distribution, area contraction and discharge coefficients are made between the beryllium nozzle and plastic nozzles of the same nominal geometry. When gas is dissolved in the fuel, the vapor distribution can be quite different from that found in plastic nozzles of the same dimensions, although the discharge coefficients are unaffected. In the beryllium nozzle, there were substantially fewer machining defects to act as nucleation sites for the precipitation of bubbles from dissolved gases in the fuel, and as such the effect on the vapor distribution was greatly reduced.},
doi = {10.1177/1468087416685965},
journal = {International Journal of Engine Research},
number = 1-2,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 17 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Jan 17 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92
journal, July 1993

  • Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.
  • Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, Vol. 54, Issue 2, p. 181-342
  • DOI: 10.1006/adnd.1993.1013