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Title: Consideration of neutral beam prompt loss in the design of a tokamak helicon antenna

Abstract

Neutral beam prompt losses (injected neutrals that ionize such that their first poloidal transit intersects with the wall) can put appreciable power on the outer wall of tokamaks, and this power may damage the wall or other internal components. These prompt losses are simulated including a protruding helicon antenna installation in the DIII-D tokamak and it is determined that 160 kW of power will impact the antenna during the injection of a particular neutral beam. Protective graphite tiles are designed in response to this modeling and the wall shape of the installed antenna is precisely measured to improve the accuracy of these calculations. Initial experiments con rm that the antenna component temperature increases according to the amount of neutral beam energy injected into the plasma. Incorporating neutral beam prompt loss considerations into the design of this in-vessel component serves to ensure that adequate protection or cooling is provided.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
OSTI Identifier:
1371877
Grant/Contract Number:
FC02-04ER54698
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Fusion Engineering and Design
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 112; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: D.C. Pace, M.A. Van Zeeland, B. Fishler, and C. Murphy, "Consideration of neutral beam prompt loss in the design of a tokamak helicon antenna," Fus Eng Des 112, 14-20 (2016); Journal ID: ISSN 0920-3796
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; neutral beam; prompt loss; helicon antenna; thermal design

Citation Formats

Pace, D. C., Van Zeeland, M. A., Fishler, B., and Murphy, C. Consideration of neutral beam prompt loss in the design of a tokamak helicon antenna. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2016.07.018.
Pace, D. C., Van Zeeland, M. A., Fishler, B., & Murphy, C. Consideration of neutral beam prompt loss in the design of a tokamak helicon antenna. United States. doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2016.07.018.
Pace, D. C., Van Zeeland, M. A., Fishler, B., and Murphy, C. 2016. "Consideration of neutral beam prompt loss in the design of a tokamak helicon antenna". United States. doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2016.07.018. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1371877.
@article{osti_1371877,
title = {Consideration of neutral beam prompt loss in the design of a tokamak helicon antenna},
author = {Pace, D. C. and Van Zeeland, M. A. and Fishler, B. and Murphy, C.},
abstractNote = {Neutral beam prompt losses (injected neutrals that ionize such that their first poloidal transit intersects with the wall) can put appreciable power on the outer wall of tokamaks, and this power may damage the wall or other internal components. These prompt losses are simulated including a protruding helicon antenna installation in the DIII-D tokamak and it is determined that 160 kW of power will impact the antenna during the injection of a particular neutral beam. Protective graphite tiles are designed in response to this modeling and the wall shape of the installed antenna is precisely measured to improve the accuracy of these calculations. Initial experiments con rm that the antenna component temperature increases according to the amount of neutral beam energy injected into the plasma. Incorporating neutral beam prompt loss considerations into the design of this in-vessel component serves to ensure that adequate protection or cooling is provided.},
doi = {10.1016/j.fusengdes.2016.07.018},
journal = {Fusion Engineering and Design},
number = C,
volume = 112,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

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  • A numerical model describing the expected measurements of neutral beam prompt-losses by a newly commissioned fast ion loss detector (FILD) in DIII-D is presented. This model incorporates the well understood neutral beam deposition profiles from all eight DIII-D beamlines to construct a prompt-loss source distribution. The full range of detectable ion orbit phase space available to the FILD is used to calculate ion trajectories that overlap with neutral beam injection footprints. Weight functions are applied to account for the level of overlap between these detectable orbits and the spatial and velocity (pitch) properties of ionized beam neutrals. An experimental comparisonmore » is performed by firing each neutral beam individually in the presence of a ramping plasma current. Fast ion losses determined from the model are in agreement with measured losses.« less
  • Here, neutral beam injection is a major auxiliary heating method in the EAST experimental campaign. This paper gives detailed calculations of beam loss with different plasma equilibria using the guiding center code ORBIT and NUBEAM/TRANSP. Increasing plasma current can dramatically lower the beam ion prompt loss and ripple loss. Countercurrent beam injection gives a much larger prompt loss fraction than co-injection, and ripple-induced collisionless stochastic diffusion is the dominant loss channel.
  • A new antenna design for driving current in high beta tokamaks using electromagnetic waves, called Helicons, will be experimentally tested for the first time at power approaching 1 megawatt (MW) in the DIII-D Tokamak. This method is expected to be more efficient than current drive using electron cyclotron waves or neutral beam injection, and may be well suited to reactor-like configurations. A low power (100 watt (W)) 476 megahertz (MHz) “comb-line” antenna, consisting of 12 inductively coupled electrostatically shielded, modular resonators, was tested in DIII-D and showed strong coupling to the plasma without disturbing its characteristics or introducing metal impurities.more » The high power antenna consists of 30 modules affixed to back-plates and mounted on the outer wall of the vacuum vessel above the mid-plane. The antenna design follows a similar low power antenna design modified to minimize RF loss. Heat removal is provided by water cooling and a novel heat conducting path using pyrolytic graphite sheet. The CuCrZr antenna modules are designed to handle high eddy current forces. The modules use molybdenum Faraday shields that have the plasma side coated with boron carbide to enhance thermal resistance and minimize high Z impurities. A RF strip-line feed routes the RF power from coaxial vacuum feed-throughs to the antenna. Multipactor analysis of the antenna, strip line, and feedthrough will be performed. A 1.2 MW, 476 MHz klystron system, provided by the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) will provide RF power to the new antenna. Lastly, a description of the design of the high power antenna, the RF strip-line feeds, and the vessel installation will be presented.« less
  • This paper describes the physics design of a 100 keV, 60 A H{sup -} accelerator for the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER). The accelerator is a three grid system comprising of 1280 apertures, grouped in 16 groups with 80 apertures per beam group. Several computer codes have been used to optimize the design which follows the same philosophy as the ITER Design Description Document (DDD) 5.3 and the 1 MeV heating and current drive beam line [R. Hemsworth, H. Decamps, J. Graceffa, B. Schunke, M. Tanaka, M. Dremel, A. Tanga, H. P. L. De Esch,more » F. Geli, J. Milnes, T. Inoue, D. Marcuzzi, P. Sonato, and P. Zaccaria, Nucl. Fusion 49, 045006 (2009)]. The aperture shapes, intergrid distances, and the extractor voltage have been optimized to minimize the beamlet divergence. To suppress the acceleration of coextracted electrons, permanent magnets have been incorporated in the extraction grid, downstream of the cooling water channels. The electron power loads on the extractor and the grounded grids have been calculated assuming 1 coextracted electron per ion. The beamlet divergence is calculated to be 4 mrad. At present the design for the filter field of the RF based ion sources for ITER is not fixed, therefore a few configurations of the same have been considered. Their effect on the transmission of the electrons and beams through the accelerator has been studied. The OPERA-3D code has been used to estimate the aperture offset steering constant of the grounded grid and the extraction grid, the space charge interaction between the beamlets and the kerb design required to compensate for this interaction. All beamlets in the DNB must be focused to a single point in the duct, 20.665 m from the grounded grid, and the required geometrical aimings and aperture offsets have been calculated.« less