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Title: A high-mobility electronic system at an electrolyte-gated oxide surface

Abstract

Electrolyte gating is a powerful technique for accumulating large carrier densities at a surface. Yet this approach suffers from significant sources of disorder: electrochemical reactions can damage or alter the sample, and the ions of the electrolyte and various dissolved contaminants sit Angstroms from the electron system. Accordingly, electrolyte gating is well suited to studies of superconductivity and other phenomena robust to disorder, but of limited use when reactions or disorder must be avoided. Here we demonstrate that these limitations can be overcome by protecting the sample with a chemically inert, atomically smooth sheet of hexagonal boron nitride. We illustrate our technique with electrolyte-gated strontium titanate, whose mobility when protected with boron nitride improves more than 10-fold while achieving carrier densities nearing 10 14 cm –2. In conclusion, our technique is portable to other materials, and should enable future studies where high carrier density modulation is required but electrochemical reactions and surface disorder must be minimized.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC), Washington, D.C. (United States). Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion (CNEEC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1369990
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001060
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Related Information: CNEEC partners with Stanford University (lead); Carnegie Institution at Stanford; Technical University of Denmark; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Gallagher, Patrick, Lee, Menyoung, Petach, Trevor A., Stanwyck, Sam W., Williams, James R., Watanabe, Kenji, Taniguchi, Takashi, and Goldhaber-Gordon, David. A high-mobility electronic system at an electrolyte-gated oxide surface. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1038/ncomms7437.
Gallagher, Patrick, Lee, Menyoung, Petach, Trevor A., Stanwyck, Sam W., Williams, James R., Watanabe, Kenji, Taniguchi, Takashi, & Goldhaber-Gordon, David. A high-mobility electronic system at an electrolyte-gated oxide surface. United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms7437.
Gallagher, Patrick, Lee, Menyoung, Petach, Trevor A., Stanwyck, Sam W., Williams, James R., Watanabe, Kenji, Taniguchi, Takashi, and Goldhaber-Gordon, David. Thu . "A high-mobility electronic system at an electrolyte-gated oxide surface". United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms7437. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1369990.
@article{osti_1369990,
title = {A high-mobility electronic system at an electrolyte-gated oxide surface},
author = {Gallagher, Patrick and Lee, Menyoung and Petach, Trevor A. and Stanwyck, Sam W. and Williams, James R. and Watanabe, Kenji and Taniguchi, Takashi and Goldhaber-Gordon, David},
abstractNote = {Electrolyte gating is a powerful technique for accumulating large carrier densities at a surface. Yet this approach suffers from significant sources of disorder: electrochemical reactions can damage or alter the sample, and the ions of the electrolyte and various dissolved contaminants sit Angstroms from the electron system. Accordingly, electrolyte gating is well suited to studies of superconductivity and other phenomena robust to disorder, but of limited use when reactions or disorder must be avoided. Here we demonstrate that these limitations can be overcome by protecting the sample with a chemically inert, atomically smooth sheet of hexagonal boron nitride. We illustrate our technique with electrolyte-gated strontium titanate, whose mobility when protected with boron nitride improves more than 10-fold while achieving carrier densities nearing 1014 cm–2. In conclusion, our technique is portable to other materials, and should enable future studies where high carrier density modulation is required but electrochemical reactions and surface disorder must be minimized.},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms7437},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = ,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 12 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Thu Mar 12 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}

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Cited by: 26 works
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Works referenced in this record:

Electric-field-induced superconductivity in an insulator
journal, October 2008

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Phase Diagram of Electrostatically Doped SrTiO3
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Shubnikov–De Haas Oscillations in SrTiO3/LaAlO3 Interface
journal, November 2010