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Title: Design and characterization of a prototype divertor viewing infrared video bolometer for NSTX-U

Abstract

The InfraRed Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful tool to measure radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas due to its ability to obtain 2D images of plasma emission using a technique that is compatible with the fusion nuclear environment. A prototype IRVB has been developed and installed on NSTX-U to view the lower divertor. The IRVB is a pinhole camera which images radiation from the plasma onto a 2.5 μm thick, 9 × 7 cm 2 Pt foil and monitors the resulting spatio-temporal temperature evolution using an IR camera. The power flux incident on the foil is calculated by solving the 2D+time heat diffusion equation, using the foil’s calibrated thermal properties. An optimized, high frame rate IRVB, is quantitatively compared to results from a resistive bolometer on the bench using a modulated 405 nm laser beam with variable power density and square wave modulation from 0.2 Hz to 250 Hz. The design of the NSTX-U system and benchtop characterization are presented where signal-to-noise ratios are assessed using three different IR cameras: FLIR A655sc, FLIR A6751sc, and SBF-161. The sensitivity of the IRVB equipped with the SBF-161 camera is found to be high enough to measure radiation features in the NSTX-Umore » lower divertor as estimated using SOLPS modeling. Here, the optimized IRVB has a frame rate up to 50 Hz, high enough to distinguish radiation during edge-localized-modes (ELMs) from that between ELMs.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [4];  [4];  [2];  [3];  [5];  [6];  [1]
  1. Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, AJ Eindhoven (The Netherlands)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan)
  4. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  5. National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Naka (Japan)
  6. Institute for Plasma Research, Gujarat (India)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1368686
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-09CH11466
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

van Eden, G. G., Reinke, M. L., Peterson, B. J., Gray, T. K., Delgado-Aparicio, L. F., Jaworski, M. A., Lore, J., Mukai, K., Sano, R., Pandya, S. N., and Morgan, T. W.. Design and characterization of a prototype divertor viewing infrared video bolometer for NSTX-U. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4955487.
van Eden, G. G., Reinke, M. L., Peterson, B. J., Gray, T. K., Delgado-Aparicio, L. F., Jaworski, M. A., Lore, J., Mukai, K., Sano, R., Pandya, S. N., & Morgan, T. W.. Design and characterization of a prototype divertor viewing infrared video bolometer for NSTX-U. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4955487.
van Eden, G. G., Reinke, M. L., Peterson, B. J., Gray, T. K., Delgado-Aparicio, L. F., Jaworski, M. A., Lore, J., Mukai, K., Sano, R., Pandya, S. N., and Morgan, T. W.. 2016. "Design and characterization of a prototype divertor viewing infrared video bolometer for NSTX-U". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4955487. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1368686.
@article{osti_1368686,
title = {Design and characterization of a prototype divertor viewing infrared video bolometer for NSTX-U},
author = {van Eden, G. G. and Reinke, M. L. and Peterson, B. J. and Gray, T. K. and Delgado-Aparicio, L. F. and Jaworski, M. A. and Lore, J. and Mukai, K. and Sano, R. and Pandya, S. N. and Morgan, T. W.},
abstractNote = {The InfraRed Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful tool to measure radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas due to its ability to obtain 2D images of plasma emission using a technique that is compatible with the fusion nuclear environment. A prototype IRVB has been developed and installed on NSTX-U to view the lower divertor. The IRVB is a pinhole camera which images radiation from the plasma onto a 2.5 μm thick, 9 × 7 cm2 Pt foil and monitors the resulting spatio-temporal temperature evolution using an IR camera. The power flux incident on the foil is calculated by solving the 2D+time heat diffusion equation, using the foil’s calibrated thermal properties. An optimized, high frame rate IRVB, is quantitatively compared to results from a resistive bolometer on the bench using a modulated 405 nm laser beam with variable power density and square wave modulation from 0.2 Hz to 250 Hz. The design of the NSTX-U system and benchtop characterization are presented where signal-to-noise ratios are assessed using three different IR cameras: FLIR A655sc, FLIR A6751sc, and SBF-161. The sensitivity of the IRVB equipped with the SBF-161 camera is found to be high enough to measure radiation features in the NSTX-U lower divertor as estimated using SOLPS modeling. Here, the optimized IRVB has a frame rate up to 50 Hz, high enough to distinguish radiation during edge-localized-modes (ELMs) from that between ELMs.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4955487},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 11,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Journal Article:
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  • The InfraRed Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful tool to measure radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas due to its ability to obtain 2D images of plasma emission using a technique that is compatible with the fusion nuclear environment. A prototype IRVB has been developed and installed on NSTX-U to view the lower divertor. The IRVB is a pinhole camera which images radiation from the plasma onto a 2.5 μm thick, 9 × 7 cm{sup 2} Pt foil and monitors the resulting spatio-temporal temperature evolution using an IR camera. The power flux incident on the foil is calculated by solvingmore » the 2D+time heat diffusion equation, using the foil’s calibrated thermal properties. An optimized, high frame rate IRVB, is quantitatively compared to results from a resistive bolometer on the bench using a modulated 405 nm laser beam with variable power density and square wave modulation from 0.2 Hz to 250 Hz. The design of the NSTX-U system and benchtop characterization are presented where signal-to-noise ratios are assessed using three different IR cameras: FLIR A655sc, FLIR A6751sc, and SBF-161. The sensitivity of the IRVB equipped with the SBF-161 camera is found to be high enough to measure radiation features in the NSTX-U lower divertor as estimated using SOLPS modeling. The optimized IRVB has a frame rate up to 50 Hz, high enough to distinguish radiation during edge-localized-modes (ELMs) from that between ELMs.« less
  • The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer measures plasma radiated power images using a thin metal foil. Two different designs with a tangential view of NSTX-U are made assuming a 640 x 480 (1280 x 1024) pixel, 30 (105) fps, 50 (20) mK, IR camera imaging the 9 cm x 9 cm x 2 μm Pt foil. The foil is divided into 40 x 40 (64 x 64) IRVB channels. This gives a spatial resolution of 3.4 (2.2) cm on the machine mid-plane. The noise equivalent power density of the IRVB is given as 113 (46) μW/cm 2 for a time resolutionmore » of 33 (20) ms. Synthetic images derived from SOLPS data using the IRVB geometry show peak signal levels ranging from ~0.8 - ~80 (~0.36 - ~26) mW/cm 2.« less
  • The infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) measures plasma radiated power images using a thin metal foil. Two different designs with a tangential view of NSTX-U are made assuming a 640 × 480 (1280 × 1024) pixel, 30 (105) fps, 50 (20) mK, IR camera imaging the 9 cm × 9 cm × 2 μm Pt foil. The foil is divided into 40 × 40 (64 × 64) IRVB channels. This gives a spatial resolution of 3.4 (2.2) cm on the machine mid-plane. The noise equivalent power density of the IRVB is given as 113 (46) μW/cm{sup 2} for a timemore » resolution of 33 (20) ms. Synthetic images derived from Scrape Off Layer Plasma Simulation data using the IRVB geometry show peak signal levels ranging from ∼0.8 to ∼80 (∼0.36 to ∼26) mW/cm{sup 2}.« less
  • For the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, which will allow quasicontinuous operation ({tau}{<=}30 min) with 10 MW of electron cyclotron radiation heating power, a conceptual design study for an IR/visible viewing system (IVVS) has been elaborated. Ten such systems, as part of the machine protection system, will be required for real time monitoring of all ten discrete, water cooled divertor modules with high spatial (<10 mm) resolution, in order to prevent local overheating of the target tiles, which could easily lead to their destruction. On the physics side, the systems will be used for divertor symmetry investigations by studying the power loadmore » distribution on all targets modules and by observing the island divertor plasmas in the light of H{alpha}, C II, and C III using the visible imaging section of the systems. The optics of the system can be divided into three parts: a mirror based optical head, creating an intermediate image, a Cassegrain telescope system, and individual lens based imaging optics adapted to the various detectors for IR (3-5 {mu}m and 8-14 {mu}m) and visible observations, with their optical light paths being separated by in-vacuum dichroic beam splitters.« less
  • An Infrared imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) diagnostic is currently being used in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for studying the localization of radiation structures near the magnetic island and helical divertor X-points during plasma detachment and for 3D tomography. This research demands high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity to improve the temporal resolution for studying the evolution of radiation structures during plasma detachment and a wide IRVB field of view (FoV) for tomography. Introduction of an infrared periscope allows achievement of a higher SNR and higher sensitivity, which in turn, permits a twofold improvement in the temporal resolutionmore » of the diagnostic. Higher SNR along with wide FoV is achieved simultaneously by reducing the separation of the IRVB detector (metal foil) from the bolometer's aperture and the LHD plasma. Altering the distances to meet the aforesaid requirements results in an increased separation between the foil and the IR camera. This leads to a degradation of the diagnostic performance in terms of its sensitivity by 1.5-fold. Using an infrared periscope to image the IRVB foil results in a 7.5-fold increase in the number of IR camera pixels imaging the foil. This improves the IRVB sensitivity which depends on the square root of the number of IR camera pixels being averaged per bolometer channel. Despite the slower f-number (f/# = 1.35) and reduced transmission (τ{sub 0} = 89%, due to an increased number of lens elements) for the periscope, the diagnostic with an infrared periscope operational on LHD has improved in terms of sensitivity and SNR by a factor of 1.4 and 4.5, respectively, as compared to the original diagnostic without a periscope (i.e., IRVB foil being directly imaged by the IR camera through conventional optics). The bolometer's field of view has also increased by two times. The paper discusses these improvements in apt details.« less