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Title: Airborne measurements of western U.S. wildfire emissions: Comparison with prescribed burning and air quality implications: Western U.S. Wildfire Emissions

Abstract

Wildfires emit significant amounts of pollutants that degrade air quality. Plumes from three wildfires in the western U.S. were measured from aircraft during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) and the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), both in summer 2013. This study reports an extensive set of emission factors (EFs) for over 80 gases and 5 components of submicron particulate matter (PM1) from these temperate wildfires. These include rarely, or never before, measured oxygenated volatile organic compounds and multifunctional organic nitrates. The observed EFs are compared with previous measurements of temperate wildfires, boreal forest fires, and temperate prescribed fires. The wildfires emitted high amounts of PM1 (with organic aerosol (OA) dominating the mass) with an average EF that is more than two times the EFs for prescribed fires. The measured EFs were used to estimate the annual wildfire emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total nonmethane organic compounds, and PM1 from 11 western U.S. states. The estimated gas emissions are generally comparable with the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). However, our PM1 emission estimate (1530 ± 570 Gg yr-1) is over three times that of the NEI PM2.5 estimate and ismore » also higher than the PM2.5 emitted from all other sources in these states in the NEI. This study indicates that the source of OA from BB in the western states is significantly underestimated. In addition, our results indicate prescribed burning may be an effective method to reduce fine particle emissions.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [7];  [4];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [11];  [12];  [13]; ORCiD logo [14];  [6]; ORCiD logo [2] more »;  [15]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [16]; ORCiD logo [13]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [17]; ORCiD logo [18]; ORCiD logo [19];  [11];  [15]; ORCiD logo [20];  [15]; ORCiD logo [21];  [2]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [22]; ORCiD logo [23]; ORCiD logo [24] « less
  1. School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Georgia USA; Now at Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Now at Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA
  2. School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Georgia USA
  3. Department of Chemistry, University of Montana, Missoula Montana USA
  4. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine California USA
  5. Department of Chemistry, University of Montana, Missoula Montana USA; Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck Austria
  6. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA
  7. NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; Now at Department of Chemistry, California State University, San Bernardino California USA
  8. Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos New Mexico USA; Now at Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Michigan USA
  9. NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton Virginia USA
  10. Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA
  11. NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA
  12. Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos New Mexico USA
  13. Center for Aerosol and Cloud Chemistry, Aerodyne Research Inc., Billerica Massachusetts USA
  14. Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA
  15. Environmental and Climate Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA
  16. Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo Norway
  17. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder Colorado USA
  18. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder Colorado USA; Now at Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Colorado USA
  19. Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder Colorado USA
  20. Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA
  21. Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Now at Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Now at Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore Maryland USA
  22. Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA
  23. Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck Austria; Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo Norway
  24. Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore Maryland USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1368117
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-125343
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X; KP1701000
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Liu, Xiaoxi, Huey, L. Gregory, Yokelson, Robert J., Selimovic, Vanessa, Simpson, Isobel J., Müller, Markus, Jimenez, Jose L., Campuzano-Jost, Pedro, Beyersdorf, Andreas J., Blake, Donald R., Butterfield, Zachary, Choi, Yonghoon, Crounse, John D., Day, Douglas A., Diskin, Glenn S., Dubey, Manvendra K., Fortner, Edward, Hanisco, Thomas F., Hu, Weiwei, King, Laura E., Kleinman, Lawrence, Meinardi, Simone, Mikoviny, Tomas, Onasch, Timothy B., Palm, Brett B., Peischl, Jeff, Pollack, Ilana B., Ryerson, Thomas B., Sachse, Glen W., Sedlacek, Arthur J., Shilling, John E., Springston, Stephen, St. Clair, Jason M., Tanner, David J., Teng, Alexander P., Wennberg, Paul O., Wisthaler, Armin, and Wolfe, Glenn M. Airborne measurements of western U.S. wildfire emissions: Comparison with prescribed burning and air quality implications: Western U.S. Wildfire Emissions. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2016JD026315.
Liu, Xiaoxi, Huey, L. Gregory, Yokelson, Robert J., Selimovic, Vanessa, Simpson, Isobel J., Müller, Markus, Jimenez, Jose L., Campuzano-Jost, Pedro, Beyersdorf, Andreas J., Blake, Donald R., Butterfield, Zachary, Choi, Yonghoon, Crounse, John D., Day, Douglas A., Diskin, Glenn S., Dubey, Manvendra K., Fortner, Edward, Hanisco, Thomas F., Hu, Weiwei, King, Laura E., Kleinman, Lawrence, Meinardi, Simone, Mikoviny, Tomas, Onasch, Timothy B., Palm, Brett B., Peischl, Jeff, Pollack, Ilana B., Ryerson, Thomas B., Sachse, Glen W., Sedlacek, Arthur J., Shilling, John E., Springston, Stephen, St. Clair, Jason M., Tanner, David J., Teng, Alexander P., Wennberg, Paul O., Wisthaler, Armin, & Wolfe, Glenn M. Airborne measurements of western U.S. wildfire emissions: Comparison with prescribed burning and air quality implications: Western U.S. Wildfire Emissions. United States. doi:10.1002/2016JD026315.
Liu, Xiaoxi, Huey, L. Gregory, Yokelson, Robert J., Selimovic, Vanessa, Simpson, Isobel J., Müller, Markus, Jimenez, Jose L., Campuzano-Jost, Pedro, Beyersdorf, Andreas J., Blake, Donald R., Butterfield, Zachary, Choi, Yonghoon, Crounse, John D., Day, Douglas A., Diskin, Glenn S., Dubey, Manvendra K., Fortner, Edward, Hanisco, Thomas F., Hu, Weiwei, King, Laura E., Kleinman, Lawrence, Meinardi, Simone, Mikoviny, Tomas, Onasch, Timothy B., Palm, Brett B., Peischl, Jeff, Pollack, Ilana B., Ryerson, Thomas B., Sachse, Glen W., Sedlacek, Arthur J., Shilling, John E., Springston, Stephen, St. Clair, Jason M., Tanner, David J., Teng, Alexander P., Wennberg, Paul O., Wisthaler, Armin, and Wolfe, Glenn M. Wed . "Airborne measurements of western U.S. wildfire emissions: Comparison with prescribed burning and air quality implications: Western U.S. Wildfire Emissions". United States. doi:10.1002/2016JD026315.
@article{osti_1368117,
title = {Airborne measurements of western U.S. wildfire emissions: Comparison with prescribed burning and air quality implications: Western U.S. Wildfire Emissions},
author = {Liu, Xiaoxi and Huey, L. Gregory and Yokelson, Robert J. and Selimovic, Vanessa and Simpson, Isobel J. and Müller, Markus and Jimenez, Jose L. and Campuzano-Jost, Pedro and Beyersdorf, Andreas J. and Blake, Donald R. and Butterfield, Zachary and Choi, Yonghoon and Crounse, John D. and Day, Douglas A. and Diskin, Glenn S. and Dubey, Manvendra K. and Fortner, Edward and Hanisco, Thomas F. and Hu, Weiwei and King, Laura E. and Kleinman, Lawrence and Meinardi, Simone and Mikoviny, Tomas and Onasch, Timothy B. and Palm, Brett B. and Peischl, Jeff and Pollack, Ilana B. and Ryerson, Thomas B. and Sachse, Glen W. and Sedlacek, Arthur J. and Shilling, John E. and Springston, Stephen and St. Clair, Jason M. and Tanner, David J. and Teng, Alexander P. and Wennberg, Paul O. and Wisthaler, Armin and Wolfe, Glenn M.},
abstractNote = {Wildfires emit significant amounts of pollutants that degrade air quality. Plumes from three wildfires in the western U.S. were measured from aircraft during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) and the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), both in summer 2013. This study reports an extensive set of emission factors (EFs) for over 80 gases and 5 components of submicron particulate matter (PM1) from these temperate wildfires. These include rarely, or never before, measured oxygenated volatile organic compounds and multifunctional organic nitrates. The observed EFs are compared with previous measurements of temperate wildfires, boreal forest fires, and temperate prescribed fires. The wildfires emitted high amounts of PM1 (with organic aerosol (OA) dominating the mass) with an average EF that is more than two times the EFs for prescribed fires. The measured EFs were used to estimate the annual wildfire emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total nonmethane organic compounds, and PM1 from 11 western U.S. states. The estimated gas emissions are generally comparable with the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). However, our PM1 emission estimate (1530 ± 570 Gg yr-1) is over three times that of the NEI PM2.5 estimate and is also higher than the PM2.5 emitted from all other sources in these states in the NEI. This study indicates that the source of OA from BB in the western states is significantly underestimated. In addition, our results indicate prescribed burning may be an effective method to reduce fine particle emissions.},
doi = {10.1002/2016JD026315},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
issn = {2169-897X},
number = 11,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {6}
}

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Trace gas emissions from the production and use of domestic biofuels in Zambia measured by open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: BIOFUEL EMISSIONS
journal, February 2003

  • Bertschi, Isaac T.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Ward, Darold E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 108, Issue D13
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Open-path Fourier transform infrared studies of large-scale laboratory biomass fires
journal, September 1996

  • Yokelson, Robert J.; Griffith, David W. T.; Ward, Darold E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 101, Issue D15
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Laboratory characterization of PM emissions from combustion of wildland biomass fuels: PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM BIOMASS BURNING
journal, September 2013

  • Hosseini, S.; Urbanski, S. P.; Dixit, P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50481

Warming and Earlier Spring Increase Western U.S. Forest Wildfire Activity
journal, August 2006


Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and laboratory studies
journal, January 2011

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  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 23
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Global chlorine emissions from biomass burning: Reactive Chlorine Emissions Inventory
journal, April 1999

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  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 104, Issue D7
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Biomass Burning in the Tropics: Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry and Biogeochemical Cycles
journal, December 1990


Absorptivity of brown carbon in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions
journal, January 2013

  • Saleh, R.; Hennigan, C. J.; McMeeking, G. R.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-7683-2013

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory
journal, January 2009

  • McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, Issue D19
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JD011836

Comprehensive laboratory measurements of biomass-burning emissions: 1. Emissions from Indonesian, African, and other fuels
journal, January 2003


Evolution of brown carbon in wildfire plumes
journal, June 2015

  • Forrister, Haviland; Liu, Jiumeng; Scheuer, Eric
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063897

Wildfire-contingent effects of fuel treatments can promote ecological resilience in seasonally dry conifer forests
journal, August 2014

  • Stevens, Jens T.; Safford, Hugh D.; Latimer, Andrew M.
  • Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 44, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1139/cjfr-2013-0460

Atmospheric oxidation capacity sustained by a tropical forest
journal, April 2008

  • Lelieveld, J.; Butler, T. M.; Crowley, J. N.
  • Nature, Vol. 452, Issue 7188
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Pyrogenic organic matter production from wildfires: a missing sink in the global carbon cycle
journal, January 2015

  • Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Preston, Caroline M.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12800

An Observational Perspective on the Atmospheric Impacts of Alkyl and Multifunctional Nitrates on Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol
journal, April 2013

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Unexpected Epoxide Formation in the Gas-Phase Photooxidation of Isoprene
journal, August 2009


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning – an updated assessment
    journal, January 2019