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Title: The National Ignition Facility modular Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope

Abstract

Current two-dimensional X-ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) uses time resolved pinhole cameras with ~10-25µm pinholes. This method has limitations in the smallest resolvable features that can be imaged with reasonable photon statistics for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. ICF sources have a broadband self-emission spectrum that causes the pinhole images obtained, through thin foil filters, to contain a similarly broadband spectrum complicating the interpretation of structure in the source. In order to study phenomena on the scale of ~5 µm, such as dopant mix in the ICF capsule, a narrow energy band, higher spatial resolution microscope system with improved signal/noise has been developed using X-ray optics. Utilizing grazing incidence mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope (KBM) configuration, an X-ray microscope has been designed and fielded on NIF with four imaging channels. The KBM has ~12x magnification, <8 µm resolution and higher throughput in comparison to similar pinhole systems. The first KBM mirrors are coated with a multilayer mirror to allow a ‘narrow band’ energy response at 10.2keV with ΔE~3keV. By adjusting the mirror coating only, the energy response can be matched to future experimental requirements. Here, several mirror packs have been commissioned and are interchangeable in the diagnosticmore » snout.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1367974
Report Number(s):
LLNL-CONF-694175
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748; RSINAK
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 11; Conference: Proceedings of the 21st Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics, Madison, WI (United States), 5-9 Jun 2016; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION

Citation Formats

Pickworth, L. A., Ayers, J., Bell, P., Brejnholt, N. F., Buscho, J. G., Bradley, D., Decker, T., Hau-Riege, S., Kilkenny, J., McCarville, T., Pardini, T., Vogel, J., and Walton, C. The National Ignition Facility modular Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4960417.
Pickworth, L. A., Ayers, J., Bell, P., Brejnholt, N. F., Buscho, J. G., Bradley, D., Decker, T., Hau-Riege, S., Kilkenny, J., McCarville, T., Pardini, T., Vogel, J., & Walton, C. The National Ignition Facility modular Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960417.
Pickworth, L. A., Ayers, J., Bell, P., Brejnholt, N. F., Buscho, J. G., Bradley, D., Decker, T., Hau-Riege, S., Kilkenny, J., McCarville, T., Pardini, T., Vogel, J., and Walton, C. 2016. "The National Ignition Facility modular Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960417. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1367974.
@article{osti_1367974,
title = {The National Ignition Facility modular Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope},
author = {Pickworth, L. A. and Ayers, J. and Bell, P. and Brejnholt, N. F. and Buscho, J. G. and Bradley, D. and Decker, T. and Hau-Riege, S. and Kilkenny, J. and McCarville, T. and Pardini, T. and Vogel, J. and Walton, C.},
abstractNote = {Current two-dimensional X-ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) uses time resolved pinhole cameras with ~10-25µm pinholes. This method has limitations in the smallest resolvable features that can be imaged with reasonable photon statistics for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. ICF sources have a broadband self-emission spectrum that causes the pinhole images obtained, through thin foil filters, to contain a similarly broadband spectrum complicating the interpretation of structure in the source. In order to study phenomena on the scale of ~5 µm, such as dopant mix in the ICF capsule, a narrow energy band, higher spatial resolution microscope system with improved signal/noise has been developed using X-ray optics. Utilizing grazing incidence mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope (KBM) configuration, an X-ray microscope has been designed and fielded on NIF with four imaging channels. The KBM has ~12x magnification, <8 µm resolution and higher throughput in comparison to similar pinhole systems. The first KBM mirrors are coated with a multilayer mirror to allow a ‘narrow band’ energy response at 10.2keV with ΔE~3keV. By adjusting the mirror coating only, the energy response can be matched to future experimental requirements. Here, several mirror packs have been commissioned and are interchangeable in the diagnostic snout.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4960417},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 11,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
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  • Current two-dimensional X-ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) uses time resolved pinhole cameras with ∼10-25 μm pinholes. This method has limitations in the smallest resolvable features that can be imaged with reasonable photon statistics for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. ICF sources have a broadband self-emission spectrum that causes the pinhole images obtained, through thin foil filters, to contain a similarly broadband spectrum complicating the interpretation of structure in the source. In order to study phenomena on the scale of ∼5 μm, such as dopant mix in the ICF capsule, a narrow energy band, higher spatial resolution microscopemore » system with improved signal/noise has been developed using X-ray optics. Utilizing grazing incidence mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope (KBM) configuration [P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766–774 (1948)], an X-ray microscope has been designed and fielded on NIF with four imaging channels. The KBM has ∼12 × magnification, <8 μm resolution, and higher throughput in comparison to similar pinhole systems. The first KBM mirrors are coated with a multilayer mirror to allow a “narrow band” energy response at 10.2 keV with ΔE ∼ 3 keV. By adjusting the mirror coating only, the energy response can be matched to the future experimental requirements. Several mirror packs have been commissioned and are interchangeable in the diagnostic snout.« less
  • Current pinhole x ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is limited in resolution and signal throughput to the detector for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications, due to the viable range of pinhole sizes (10–25 μm) that can be deployed. A higher resolution and throughput diagnostic is in development using a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope system (KBM). The system will achieve <9 μm resolution over a 300 μm field of view with a multilayer coating operating at 10.2 keV. Presented here are the first images from the uncoated NIF KBM configuration demonstrating high resolution has been achieved across the full 300 μmmore » field of view.« less
  • We developed an advanced Kirkpatrick{endash}Baez (AKB) x-ray microscope which consisted of two hyperbolic mirrors and two elliptic mirrors. The spatial resolution of {approx_lt}3 {mu}m was realized over {approximately}1 mm diam. This AKB microscope was used for x-ray imaging in laser fusion experiments. Laser absorption nonuniformity with a large wave number on a spherical solid target or a plane slab target was estimated by measurements of x-ray emission from the target surface with the microscope. The x-ray images of the imploded core plasmas were also obtained with the AKB microscope, changing the laser focus condition and the laser energy balance. {copyright}more » {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less