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Title: HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS

Abstract

A system has been developed to perform measurements on irradiated, sodium bonded-metallic fuel elements to determine the amount of fission gas retained in the fuel material after release of the gas to the element plenum. During irradiation of metallic fuel elements, most of the fission gas developed is released from the fuel and captured in the gas plenums of the fuel elements. A significant amount of fission gas, however, remains captured in closed porosities which develop in the fuel during irradiation. Additionally, some gas is trapped in open porosity but sealed off from the plenum by frozen bond sodium after the element has cooled in the hot cell. The Retained fission Gas (RFG) system has been designed, tested and implemented to capture and measure the quantity of retained fission gas in characterized cut pieces of sodium bonded metallic fuel. Fuel pieces are loaded into the apparatus along with a prescribed amount of iron powder, which is used to create a relatively low melting, eutectic composition as the iron diffuses into the fuel. The apparatus is sealed, evacuated, and then heated to temperatures in excess of the eutectic melting point. Retained fission gas release is monitored by pressure transducers during themore » heating phase, thus monitoring for release of fission gas as first the bond sodium melts and then the fuel. A separate hot cell system is used to sample the gas in the apparatus and also characterize the volume of the apparatus thus permitting the calculation of the total fission gas release from the fuel element samples along with analysis of the gas composition.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1367840
Report Number(s):
INL/CON-16-38835
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: HotLab 2016, Karlsruhe, Germany, October 2–6, 2016
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; Fission Gas Retention; Sodium Bonded Fuel

Citation Formats

Sell, D. A., Baily, C. E., Malewitz, T. J., Medvedev, P. G., Porter, D. L., and Hilton, B. A.. HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Sell, D. A., Baily, C. E., Malewitz, T. J., Medvedev, P. G., Porter, D. L., & Hilton, B. A.. HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS. United States.
Sell, D. A., Baily, C. E., Malewitz, T. J., Medvedev, P. G., Porter, D. L., and Hilton, B. A.. 2016. "HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1367840.
@article{osti_1367840,
title = {HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS},
author = {Sell, D. A. and Baily, C. E. and Malewitz, T. J. and Medvedev, P. G. and Porter, D. L. and Hilton, B. A.},
abstractNote = {A system has been developed to perform measurements on irradiated, sodium bonded-metallic fuel elements to determine the amount of fission gas retained in the fuel material after release of the gas to the element plenum. During irradiation of metallic fuel elements, most of the fission gas developed is released from the fuel and captured in the gas plenums of the fuel elements. A significant amount of fission gas, however, remains captured in closed porosities which develop in the fuel during irradiation. Additionally, some gas is trapped in open porosity but sealed off from the plenum by frozen bond sodium after the element has cooled in the hot cell. The Retained fission Gas (RFG) system has been designed, tested and implemented to capture and measure the quantity of retained fission gas in characterized cut pieces of sodium bonded metallic fuel. Fuel pieces are loaded into the apparatus along with a prescribed amount of iron powder, which is used to create a relatively low melting, eutectic composition as the iron diffuses into the fuel. The apparatus is sealed, evacuated, and then heated to temperatures in excess of the eutectic melting point. Retained fission gas release is monitored by pressure transducers during the heating phase, thus monitoring for release of fission gas as first the bond sodium melts and then the fuel. A separate hot cell system is used to sample the gas in the apparatus and also characterize the volume of the apparatus thus permitting the calculation of the total fission gas release from the fuel element samples along with analysis of the gas composition.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Conference:
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  • Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the quantity of retained fission gas in irradiated metallic fuel (U-5Fs) are presented. The calculations utilize the Booth method to model the steady-state release of gases from fuel grains and a simplified grain-boundary gas model to predict the gas release from intergranular regions. The quantity of gas retained in as-irradiated fuel was determined by collecting the gases released from short segments of EBR-II driver fuel that were melted in a gas-tight furnace. Comparison of the calculations to the measurements shows quantitative agreement with both the magnitude and the axial variation of the retained gasmore » content.« less
  • Out-of-reactor experiments utilizing direct electrical heating and infrared heating techniques were performed on irradiated metallic fuel. The results indicate accelerated expansion can occur during thermal transients and that the accelerated expansion is driven by retained fission gases. The results also demonstrate gas retention and, hence, expansion behavior is a function of axial position within the pin.
  • The purpose of this paper is to describe (a) techniques which have been found useful in the examination of irradiated and highly radioactive materials with a microprobe which was unshielded at first and later had a limited amount of shielding added and (b) applications of these techniques in a study of the relative degree of retention of the fission gas, xenon, by irradiated dispersion fuel elements. These techniques include the preparation of specimens of limited size to decrease the total radioactivity, "counting-over-the-peak" to decrease the lower limit of detectability with an accompanying increase in the sensitivity of detection of tracemore » elements in the presence of high background levels and the introduction of a limited amount of shielding in the microprobe. The discussion of the shielding includes a number of considerations which have a bearing on the examination of highly radioactive specimens by microprobe.« less
  • Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.