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Title: Gusts and shear within hurricane eyewalls can exceed offshore wind turbine design standards

Abstract

Here, offshore wind energy development is underway in the U.S., with proposed sites located in hurricane-prone regions. Turbine design criteria outlined by the International Electrotechnical Commission do not encompass the extreme wind speeds and directional shifts of hurricanes stronger than category 2. We examine a hurricane's turbulent eyewall using large-eddy simulations with Cloud Model 1. Gusts and mean wind speeds near the eyewall of a category 5 hurricane exceed the current Class I turbine design threshold of 50 m s –1 mean wind and 70 m s –1 gusts. Largest gust factors occur at the eye-eyewall interface. Further, shifts in wind direction suggest that turbines must rotate or yaw faster than current practice. Although current design standards omit mention of wind direction change across the rotor layer, large values (15–50°) suggest that veer should be considered.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [4]
  1. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  2. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  4. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind and Water Technologies Office (EE-4W)
OSTI Identifier:
1366545
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5000-67513
Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY; hurricane boundary layer; LES; wind turbine design; hurricane eyewall; offshore wind energy

Citation Formats

Worsnop, Rochelle P., Lundquist, Julie K., Bryan, George H., Damiani, Rick, and Musial, Walt. Gusts and shear within hurricane eyewalls can exceed offshore wind turbine design standards. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017GL073537.
Worsnop, Rochelle P., Lundquist, Julie K., Bryan, George H., Damiani, Rick, & Musial, Walt. Gusts and shear within hurricane eyewalls can exceed offshore wind turbine design standards. United States. doi:10.1002/2017GL073537.
Worsnop, Rochelle P., Lundquist, Julie K., Bryan, George H., Damiani, Rick, and Musial, Walt. 2017. "Gusts and shear within hurricane eyewalls can exceed offshore wind turbine design standards". United States. doi:10.1002/2017GL073537.
@article{osti_1366545,
title = {Gusts and shear within hurricane eyewalls can exceed offshore wind turbine design standards},
author = {Worsnop, Rochelle P. and Lundquist, Julie K. and Bryan, George H. and Damiani, Rick and Musial, Walt},
abstractNote = {Here, offshore wind energy development is underway in the U.S., with proposed sites located in hurricane-prone regions. Turbine design criteria outlined by the International Electrotechnical Commission do not encompass the extreme wind speeds and directional shifts of hurricanes stronger than category 2. We examine a hurricane's turbulent eyewall using large-eddy simulations with Cloud Model 1. Gusts and mean wind speeds near the eyewall of a category 5 hurricane exceed the current Class I turbine design threshold of 50 m s–1 mean wind and 70 m s–1 gusts. Largest gust factors occur at the eye-eyewall interface. Further, shifts in wind direction suggest that turbines must rotate or yaw faster than current practice. Although current design standards omit mention of wind direction change across the rotor layer, large values (15–50°) suggest that veer should be considered.},
doi = {10.1002/2017GL073537},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
number = 12,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 5
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1002/2017GL073537

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  • Here, offshore wind energy development is underway in the U.S., with proposed sites located in hurricane-prone regions. Turbine design criteria outlined by the International Electrotechnical Commission do not encompass the extreme wind speeds and directional shifts of hurricanes stronger than category 2. We examine a hurricane's turbulent eyewall using large-eddy simulations with Cloud Model 1. Gusts and mean wind speeds near the eyewall of a category 5 hurricane exceed the current Class I turbine design threshold of 50 m s –1 mean wind and 70 m s –1 gusts. Largest gust factors occur at the eye-eyewall interface. Further, shifts inmore » wind direction suggest that turbines must rotate or yaw faster than current practice. Although current design standards omit mention of wind direction change across the rotor layer, large values (15–50°) suggest that veer should be considered.« less
  • A significant number of wind turbines installed today have reached their designed service life of 20 years, and the number will rise continuously. Most of these turbines promise a more economical performance if they operate for more than 20 years. To assess a continued operation, we have to analyze the load-bearing capacity of the support structure with respect to site-specific conditions. Such an analysis requires the comparison of the loads used for the design of the support structure with the actual loads experienced. This publication presents the application of a so-called inverse load calculation to a 5-MW wind turbine supportmore » structure. The inverse load calculation determines external loads derived from a mechanical description of the support structure and from measured structural responses. Using numerical simulations with the software fast, we investigated the influence of wind-turbine-specific effects such as the wind turbine control or the dynamic interaction between the loads and the support structure to the presented inverse load calculation procedure. fast is used to study the inverse calculation of simultaneously acting wind and wave loads, which has not been carried out until now. Furthermore, the application of the inverse load calculation procedure to a real 5-MW wind turbine support structure is demonstrated. In terms of this practical application, setting up the mechanical system for the support structure using measurement data is discussed. The paper presents results for defined load cases and assesses the accuracy of the inversely derived dynamic loads for both the simulations and the practical application.« less