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Title: SURROGATE MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF REACTOR PRESSURE VESSELS

Abstract

In nuclear light water reactors (LWRs), the reactor coolant, core and shroud are contained within a massive, thick walled steel vessel known as a reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Given the tremendous size of these structures, RPVs typically contain a large population of pre-existing flaws introduced in the manufacturing process. After many years of operation, irradiation-induced embrittlement makes these vessels increasingly susceptible to fracture initiation at the locations of the pre-existing flaws. Because of the uncertainty in the loading conditions, flaw characteristics and material properties, probabilistic methods are widely accepted and used in assessing RPV integrity. The Fracture Analysis of Vessels – Oak Ridge (FAVOR) computer program developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is widely used for this purpose. This program can be used in order to perform deterministic and probabilistic risk-informed analyses of the structural integrity of an RPV subjected to a range of thermal-hydraulic events. FAVOR uses a one-dimensional representation of the global response of the RPV, which is appropriate for the beltline region, which experiences the most embrittlement, and employs an influence coefficient technique to rapidly compute stress intensity factors for axis-aligned surface-breaking flaws. The Grizzly code is currently under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL)more » to be used as a general multiphysics simulation tool to study a variety of degradation mechanisms in nuclear power plant components. The first application of Grizzly has been to study fracture in embrittled RPVs. Grizzly can be used to model the thermo-mechanical response of an RPV under transient conditions observed in a pressurized thermal shock (PTS) scenario. The global response of the vessel provides boundary conditions for local 3D models of the material in the vicinity of a flaw. Fracture domain integrals are computed to obtain stress intensity factors, which can in turn be used to assess whether a fracture would initiate at a pre-existing flaw. To use Grizzly for probabilistic analysis, it is necessary to have a way to rapidly evaluate stress intensity factors. To accomplish this goal, a reduced order model (ROM) has been developed to efficiently represent the behavior of a detailed 3D Grizzly model used to calculate fracture parameters. This approach uses the stress intensity factor influence coefficient method that has been used with great success in FAVOR. Instead of interpolating between tabulated solutions, as FAVOR does, the ROM approach uses a response surface methodology to compute fracture solutions based on a sampled set of results used to train the ROM. The main advantages of this approach are that the process of generating the training data can be fully automated, and the procedure can be readily used to consider more general flaw configurations. This paper demonstrates the procedure used to generate a ROM to rapidly compute stress intensity factors for axis-aligned flaws. The results from this procedure are in good agreement with those produced using the traditional influence coefficient interpolation procedure, which gives confidence in this method. This paves the way for applying this procedure for more general flaw configurations.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1363882
Report Number(s):
INL/CON-15-37214
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 17–21, 2016
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; Fracture; Reactor Pressure Vessel; Reduced Order Model

Citation Formats

Hoffman, William M., Riley, Matthew E., and Spencer, Benjamin W. SURROGATE MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF REACTOR PRESSURE VESSELS. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1115/PVP2016-63341.
Hoffman, William M., Riley, Matthew E., & Spencer, Benjamin W. SURROGATE MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF REACTOR PRESSURE VESSELS. United States. doi:10.1115/PVP2016-63341.
Hoffman, William M., Riley, Matthew E., and Spencer, Benjamin W. 2016. "SURROGATE MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF REACTOR PRESSURE VESSELS". United States. doi:10.1115/PVP2016-63341. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1363882.
@article{osti_1363882,
title = {SURROGATE MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF REACTOR PRESSURE VESSELS},
author = {Hoffman, William M. and Riley, Matthew E. and Spencer, Benjamin W.},
abstractNote = {In nuclear light water reactors (LWRs), the reactor coolant, core and shroud are contained within a massive, thick walled steel vessel known as a reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Given the tremendous size of these structures, RPVs typically contain a large population of pre-existing flaws introduced in the manufacturing process. After many years of operation, irradiation-induced embrittlement makes these vessels increasingly susceptible to fracture initiation at the locations of the pre-existing flaws. Because of the uncertainty in the loading conditions, flaw characteristics and material properties, probabilistic methods are widely accepted and used in assessing RPV integrity. The Fracture Analysis of Vessels – Oak Ridge (FAVOR) computer program developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is widely used for this purpose. This program can be used in order to perform deterministic and probabilistic risk-informed analyses of the structural integrity of an RPV subjected to a range of thermal-hydraulic events. FAVOR uses a one-dimensional representation of the global response of the RPV, which is appropriate for the beltline region, which experiences the most embrittlement, and employs an influence coefficient technique to rapidly compute stress intensity factors for axis-aligned surface-breaking flaws. The Grizzly code is currently under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to be used as a general multiphysics simulation tool to study a variety of degradation mechanisms in nuclear power plant components. The first application of Grizzly has been to study fracture in embrittled RPVs. Grizzly can be used to model the thermo-mechanical response of an RPV under transient conditions observed in a pressurized thermal shock (PTS) scenario. The global response of the vessel provides boundary conditions for local 3D models of the material in the vicinity of a flaw. Fracture domain integrals are computed to obtain stress intensity factors, which can in turn be used to assess whether a fracture would initiate at a pre-existing flaw. To use Grizzly for probabilistic analysis, it is necessary to have a way to rapidly evaluate stress intensity factors. To accomplish this goal, a reduced order model (ROM) has been developed to efficiently represent the behavior of a detailed 3D Grizzly model used to calculate fracture parameters. This approach uses the stress intensity factor influence coefficient method that has been used with great success in FAVOR. Instead of interpolating between tabulated solutions, as FAVOR does, the ROM approach uses a response surface methodology to compute fracture solutions based on a sampled set of results used to train the ROM. The main advantages of this approach are that the process of generating the training data can be fully automated, and the procedure can be readily used to consider more general flaw configurations. This paper demonstrates the procedure used to generate a ROM to rapidly compute stress intensity factors for axis-aligned flaws. The results from this procedure are in good agreement with those produced using the traditional influence coefficient interpolation procedure, which gives confidence in this method. This paves the way for applying this procedure for more general flaw configurations.},
doi = {10.1115/PVP2016-63341},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

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  • Magnox steel reactor pressure vessels differ significantly from US LWR vessels in terms of the type of steel used, as well as their operating environment (dose level, exposure temperature range, and neutron spectra). The large diameter ferritic steel vessels are constructed from C-Mn steel plates and forgings joined together with manual metal and submerged-arc welds which are stress-relieved. All Magnox vessels are now at least thirty years old and their continued operation is being vigorously pursued. Vessel surveillance and other programmes are summarized which support this objective. The current understanding of the roles of matrix irradiation damage, irradiation-enhanced copper impuritymore » precipitation and intergranular embrittlement effects is described in so far as these influence the form of the embrittlement and hardening trend curves for each material. An update is given on the influence of high temperature exposure, and on the role of differing neutron spectra. Finally, the validation offered by the results of an initial vessel sampling exercise is summarized together with the objectives of a more extensive future sampling programme.« less
  • In recent years several probabilistic fracture mechanics codes, including the VISA code, have been developed to predict the reliability of reactor pressure vessels. This paper describes several new modeling techniques used in a second generation of the VISA code entitled VISA-II. Results are presented that show the sensitivity of vessel reliability predictions to such factors as inservice inspection to detect flaws, random positioning of flaws within the vessel wall thickness, and fluence distributions that vary throughout the vessel. The algorithms used to implement these modeling techniques are also described. Other new options in VISA-II are also described in this paper.more » The effect of vessel cladding has been included in the heat transfer, stress, and fracture mechanics solutions in VISA-II. The algorithms for simulating flaws has been changed to consider an entire vessel rather than a single flaw in a single weld. The flaw distribution was changed to include the distribution of both flaw depth and length. A menu of several alternate equations has been included to predict the shift in RT/sub NDT/. For flaws that arrest and later re-initiate, an option was also included to allow correlating the current arrest toughness with subsequent initiation toughnesses.« less
  • In recent years several probabilistic fracture mechanics codes, including the VISA code, have been developed to predict the reliability of reactor pressure vessels. This paper describes new modeling techniques used in a second generation of the VISA code entitled VISA-II. Results are presented that show the sensitivity of vessel reliability predictions to such factors as inservice inspection to detect flaws, random positioning of flaws within the vessel walls thickness, and fluence distributions that vary through-out the vessel. The algorithms used to implement these modeling techniques are also described. Other new options in VISA-II are also described in this paper. Themore » effect of vessel cladding has been included in the heat transfer, stress, and fracture mechanics solutions in VISA-II. The algorithm for simulating flaws has been changed to consider an entire vessel rather than a single flaw in a single weld. The flaw distribution was changed to include the distribution of both flaw depth and length. A menu of several alternate equations has been included to predict the shift in RTNDT. For flaws that arrest and later re-initiate, an option was also included to allow correlating the current arrest thoughness with subsequent initiation toughnesses. 21 refs.« less
  • This paper is a review of the work conducted under two programs. One (NDE Reliability Program) is a multi-year program addressing the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for the inservice inspection (ISI) of light water reactor components. This program examines the reliability of current NDE, the effectiveness of evolving technologies, and provides assessments and recommendations to ensure that the NDE is applied at the right time, in the right place with sufficient effectiveness that defects of importance to structural integrity will be reliably detected and accurately characterized. The second program (Characterizing Fabrication Flaws in Reactor Pressure Vessels) is assembling amore » data base to quantify the distribution of fabrication flaws that exist in US nuclear reactor pressure vessels with respect to density, size, type, and location. These programs will be discussed as two separate sections in this report. 4 refs., 7 figs.« less