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Title: Assessment of bifacial photovoltaic module power rating methodologies–inside and out

Abstract

One-sun power ratings for bifacial modules are currently undefined. This is partly because there is no standard definition of rear irradiance given 1000 W·m -2 on the front. Using field measurements and simulations, we evaluate multiple deployment scenarios for bifacial modules and provide details on the amount of irradiance that could be expected. A simplified case that represents a single module deployed under conditions consistent with existing one-sun irradiance standards lead to a bifacial reference condition of 1000 W·m -2 G front and 130-140 W·m -2 G rear. For fielded systems of bifacial modules, Grear magnitude and spatial uniformity will be affected by self-shade from adjacent modules, varied ground cover, and ground-clearance height. A standard measurement procedure for bifacial modules is also currently undefined. A proposed international standard is under development, which provides the motivation for this paper. Here, we compare field measurements of bifacial modules under natural illumination with proposed indoor test methods, where irradiance is only applied to one side at a time. The indoor method has multiple advantages, including controlled and repeatable irradiance and thermal environment, along with allowing the use of conventional single-sided flash test equipment. The comparison results are promising, showing that indoor and outdoormore » methods agree within 1%-2% for multiple rear-irradiance conditions and bifacial module construction. Furthermore, a comparison with single-diode theory also shows good agreement to indoor measurements, within 1%-2% for power and other current-voltage curve parameters.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)
  3. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1358688
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5J00-67680
Journal ID: ISSN 2156-3381
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2156-3381
Publisher:
IEEE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; bifacial PV; IEC 60904; photovoltaic energy simulation; photovoltaic systems; ray tracing

Citation Formats

Deline, Chris, MacAlpine, Sara, Marion, Bill, Toor, Fatima, Asgharzadeh, Amir, and Stein, Joshua S. Assessment of bifacial photovoltaic module power rating methodologies–inside and out. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2017.2650565.
Deline, Chris, MacAlpine, Sara, Marion, Bill, Toor, Fatima, Asgharzadeh, Amir, & Stein, Joshua S. Assessment of bifacial photovoltaic module power rating methodologies–inside and out. United States. doi:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2017.2650565.
Deline, Chris, MacAlpine, Sara, Marion, Bill, Toor, Fatima, Asgharzadeh, Amir, and Stein, Joshua S. Thu . "Assessment of bifacial photovoltaic module power rating methodologies–inside and out". United States. doi:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2017.2650565. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1358688.
@article{osti_1358688,
title = {Assessment of bifacial photovoltaic module power rating methodologies–inside and out},
author = {Deline, Chris and MacAlpine, Sara and Marion, Bill and Toor, Fatima and Asgharzadeh, Amir and Stein, Joshua S.},
abstractNote = {One-sun power ratings for bifacial modules are currently undefined. This is partly because there is no standard definition of rear irradiance given 1000 W·m-2 on the front. Using field measurements and simulations, we evaluate multiple deployment scenarios for bifacial modules and provide details on the amount of irradiance that could be expected. A simplified case that represents a single module deployed under conditions consistent with existing one-sun irradiance standards lead to a bifacial reference condition of 1000 W·m-2 Gfront and 130-140 W·m-2 Grear. For fielded systems of bifacial modules, Grear magnitude and spatial uniformity will be affected by self-shade from adjacent modules, varied ground cover, and ground-clearance height. A standard measurement procedure for bifacial modules is also currently undefined. A proposed international standard is under development, which provides the motivation for this paper. Here, we compare field measurements of bifacial modules under natural illumination with proposed indoor test methods, where irradiance is only applied to one side at a time. The indoor method has multiple advantages, including controlled and repeatable irradiance and thermal environment, along with allowing the use of conventional single-sided flash test equipment. The comparison results are promising, showing that indoor and outdoor methods agree within 1%-2% for multiple rear-irradiance conditions and bifacial module construction. Furthermore, a comparison with single-diode theory also shows good agreement to indoor measurements, within 1%-2% for power and other current-voltage curve parameters.},
doi = {10.1109/JPHOTOV.2017.2650565},
journal = {IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics},
number = 2,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jan 26 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Jan 26 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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  • 1-sun power ratings for bifacial modules are currently undefined. This is partly because there is no standard definition of rear irradiance given 1000 Wm-2 on the front. Using field measurements and simulations, we evaluate multiple deployment scenarios for bifacial modules and provide details on the amount of irradiance that could be expected. A simplified case that represents a single module deployed under conditions consistent with existing 1-sun irradiance standards leads to a bifacial reference condition of 1000 Wm-2 Gfront and 130-140 Wm-2 Grear. For fielded systems of bifacial modules, Grear magnitude and spatial uniformity will be affected by self-shade frommore » adjacent modules, varied ground cover, and ground-clearance height. A standard measurement procedure for bifacial modules is also currently undefined. A proposed international standard is under development, which provides the motivation for this work. Here, we compare outdoor field measurements of bifacial modules with irradiance on both sides with proposed indoor test methods where irradiance is only applied to one side at a time. The indoor method has multiple advantages, including controlled and repeatable irradiance and thermal environment, along with allowing the use of conventional single-sided flash test equipment. The comparison results are promising, showing that the indoor and outdoor methods agree within 1%-2% for multiple rear-irradiance conditions and bifacial module types.« less
  • 1-sun power ratings for bifacial modules are currently undefined. This is partly because there is no standard definition of rear irradiance given 1000 Wm-2 on the front. Using field measurements and simulations, we evaluate multiple deployment scenarios for bifacial modules and provide details on the amount of irradiance that could be expected. A simplified case that represents a single module deployed under conditions consistent with existing 1-sun irradiance standards leads to a bifacial reference condition of 1000 Wm-2 Gfront and 130-140 Wm-2 Grear. For fielded systems of bifacial modules, Grear magnitude and spatial uniformity will be affected by self-shade frommore » adjacent modules, varied ground cover, and ground-clearance height. A standard measurement procedure for bifacial modules is also currently undefined. A proposed international standard is under development, which provides the motivation for this work. Here, we compare outdoor field measurements of bifacial modules with irradiance on both sides with proposed indoor test methods where irradiance is only applied to one side at a time. The indoor method has multiple advantages, including controlled and repeatable irradiance and thermal environment, along with allowing the use of conventional single-sided flash test equipment. The comparison results are promising, showing that the indoor and outdoor methods agree within 1%-2% for multiple rear-irradiance conditions and bifacial module types.« less
  • One approach to consider the prevailing spectral conditions when performing CPV module power ratings according to the standard IEC 62670-3 is based on spectral matching ratios (SMRs) determined by the means of component cell sensors. In this work, an uncertainty analysis of the SMR approach is performed based on a dataset of spectral irradiances created with SMARTS2. Using these illumination spectra, the respective efficiencies of multijunction solar cells with different cell architectures are calculated. These efficiencies were used to analyze the influence of different component cell sensors and SMR filtering methods. The 3 main findings of this work are asmore » follows. First, component cells based on the lattice-matched triple-junction (LM3J) cell are suitable for restricting spectral conditions and are qualified for the standardized power rating of CPV modules - even if the CPV module is using multijunction cells other than LM3J. Second, a filtering of all 3 SMRs with +/-3.0% of unity results in the worst case scenario in an underestimation of -1.7% and overestimation of +2.4% compared to AM1.5d efficiency. Third, there is no benefit in matching the component cells to the module cell in respect to the measurement uncertainty.« less
  • An investigation into power conditioners that interface with photovoltaic arrays and utilities has been recently completed. The ratings for this investigation include residential systems (5-30 kW) that interface with a 240-V single-phase utility connection and intermediate systems (30-200 kW) that interface with a 480-V three-phase utility connection. Both systems mandated that an isolation transformer be provided between the array and the utility interface. A trade-off study was performed for many transistor and thyristor circuits and configurations. The weighting criteria included full- and part-load efficiency, size, weight, reliability, ease of control, injected harmonics, reactive power requirements, and parts cost. As themore » result of this study, a 10-kW high-frequency PWM transistor inverter feeding a high-frequency isolation transformer with a sinusoidally shaped current wave was selected. The output of the transformer is rectified with a diode bridge rectifier. Four thyristors, used as 60-Hz switches, reverse the polarity of the rectified current on every other half-cycle of the utility voltage. This reversal is accomplished slightly before the natural zero crossing of the voltage, thereby providing commutation for the thyristors. The results in the intermediate rating study targeted on a 100-kW design using power transistors in a full-bridge circuit connected to a 60-Hz three-phase transformer.« less