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Title: Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

Abstract

A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) in the 200W water treatment facility at Hanford is removing nitrate from groundwater as part of the overall pump-treat-reinject process. Control of the FBR bed solids has proven challenging, impacting equipment, increasing operations and maintenance (O&M), and limiting the throughput of the facility. In response to the operational challenges, the Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) commissioned a technical assistance team to facilitate a system engineering evaluation and provide focused support recommendations to the Hanford Team. The DOE Environmental Management (EM) technical assistance process is structured to identify and triage technologies and strategies that address the target problem(s). The process encourages brainstorming and dialog and allows rapid identification and prioritization of possible options. Recognizing that continuous operation of a large-scale FBR is complex, requiring careful attention to system monitoring data and changing conditions, the technical assistance process focused on explicit identification of the available control parameters (“knobs”), how these parameters interact and impact the FBR system, and how these can be adjusted under different scenarios to achieve operational goals. The technical assistance triage process was performed in collaboration with the Hanford team.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM)
OSTI Identifier:
1358351
Report Number(s):
SRNL-STI-2017-0163
DOE Contract Number:
AC09-08SR22470
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Looney, Brian B., Jackson, Dennis G., Dickson, John O., and Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1358351.
Looney, Brian B., Jackson, Dennis G., Dickson, John O., & Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor. United States. doi:10.2172/1358351.
Looney, Brian B., Jackson, Dennis G., Dickson, John O., and Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. 2017. "Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor". United States. doi:10.2172/1358351. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1358351.
@article{osti_1358351,
title = {Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor},
author = {Looney, Brian B. and Jackson, Dennis G. and Dickson, John O. and Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.},
abstractNote = {A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) in the 200W water treatment facility at Hanford is removing nitrate from groundwater as part of the overall pump-treat-reinject process. Control of the FBR bed solids has proven challenging, impacting equipment, increasing operations and maintenance (O&M), and limiting the throughput of the facility. In response to the operational challenges, the Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) commissioned a technical assistance team to facilitate a system engineering evaluation and provide focused support recommendations to the Hanford Team. The DOE Environmental Management (EM) technical assistance process is structured to identify and triage technologies and strategies that address the target problem(s). The process encourages brainstorming and dialog and allows rapid identification and prioritization of possible options. Recognizing that continuous operation of a large-scale FBR is complex, requiring careful attention to system monitoring data and changing conditions, the technical assistance process focused on explicit identification of the available control parameters (“knobs”), how these parameters interact and impact the FBR system, and how these can be adjusted under different scenarios to achieve operational goals. The technical assistance triage process was performed in collaboration with the Hanford team.},
doi = {10.2172/1358351},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 5
}

Technical Report:

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  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a major source of water contamination in the US. They pose a threat to the environment and are a potential hazard to human health. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is the most common of these pollutants. TCE is usually remediated through pumping and treating it, using either air stripping or granular activated carbon. Bioremediation is an alternative treatment that uses microbes to convert hazardous substances into nonhazardous compounds. A fluidized bed adsorption bioreactor is examined here for the treatment of groundwater contaminated at low concentrations. This pilot study showed that the packed adsorbent bed could be loaded inmore » approximately 36 hours at a flow rate of 120 mL/min. The remediation phase of the process took approximately 13 days. The reduction in the TCE concentration in the sorbent during each round indicated that it was being remediated by the microbiological process. Areas that need to be improved are the rate of remediation and the loading capacity of the adsorption beds. Currently, each complete cycle of loading and remediating requires 2 weeks while only mineralizing 58 mg of TCE per column.« less
  • Although granular activated carbon (GAC), fluidized-bed bioreactors have been widely used for treatment of groundwater containing readily biodegradable organic compounds, there is only limited experience with treatment of chlorinated organics found at many DOD and industrial sites. This report summarizes performance data from a field evaluation of an Envirex model 30 bioreactor operated at various chlorobenzene concentrations and organic loading rates over a 7-month period. The work was conducted under a collaborative research and development agreement between US Air Force Armstrong Laboratory and the Dow Chemical Company. Microorganisms used to seed the bioreactor were provided by activated sludge from themore » site, as well as indigenous chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria present in the groundwater. Removal efficiencies exceeding 99.99% were achieved at organic loading rates between 6 and 10 pounds of total oxygen demand (lb TOD) per 25 cubic feet per day and hydraulic residence times of 7 minutes. Influent chlorobenzene concentrations ranging from 100 to 170 ppm were consistently reduced to below the detection limit of 10 ppb. Additional studies conducted at loading rates in excess of 10 pounds TOD per 25 cubic feet per day were useful for identifying critical operating parameters and potential system improvements, but were not representative of performance at lower loadings. Economic evaluation suggested that groundwater treatment costs for the bioreactor were lower than other conventional technologies.« less
  • The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring networkmore » through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than {approximately}1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network.« less
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