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Title: Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: A Short Hard Gamma-Ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-Law Component from 10 keV to GeV Energies

Abstract

We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with E peak = 3.9 ± 0.3 MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index –1.62 ± 0.03 that dominates the emission below ≈20 keV and above ≈100 MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by ~0.1 s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5 s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy 30.5 +5.8 –2.6 GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observation of this photon sets a minimum bulk outflow Lorentz factor, Γ≳ 1200, using simple γγ opacity arguments for this GRB at redshift z = 0.903 andmore » a variability timescale on the order of tens of ms for the ≈100 keV-few MeV flux. Stricter high confidence estimates imply Γ ≳ 1000 and still require that the outflows powering short GRBs are at least as highly relativistic as those of long-duration GRBs. Finally, implications of the temporal behavior and power-law shape of the additional component on synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton, external-shock synchrotron, and hadronic models are considered.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Contributing Org.:
The Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1357548
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 716; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma-ray burst: individual (GRB 090510); radiation mechanisms: non-thermal

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Asano, K., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Briggs, M. S., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Carrigan, S., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Connaughton, V., Dermer, C. D., de Palma, F., Dingus, B. L., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Granot, J., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kippen, R. M., Knödlseder, J., Kocevski, D., Kouveliotou, C., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Llena Garde, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., McGlynn, S., Meegan, C., Mészáros, P., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakajima, H., Nakamori, T., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paciesas, W. S., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Preece, R., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Ritz, S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sander, A., Scargle, J. D., Schalk, T. L., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stamatikos, M., Stecker, F. W., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Toma, K., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Uehara, T., Usher, T. L., van der Horst, A. J., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., von Kienlin, A., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Wilson-Hodge, C., Winer, B. L., Wu, X. F., Yamazaki, R., Yang, Z., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M.. Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: A Short Hard Gamma-Ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-Law Component from 10 keV to GeV Energies. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/716/2/1178.
Ackermann, M., Asano, K., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Briggs, M. S., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Carrigan, S., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Connaughton, V., Dermer, C. D., de Palma, F., Dingus, B. L., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Granot, J., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kippen, R. M., Knödlseder, J., Kocevski, D., Kouveliotou, C., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Llena Garde, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., McGlynn, S., Meegan, C., Mészáros, P., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakajima, H., Nakamori, T., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paciesas, W. S., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Preece, R., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Ritz, S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sander, A., Scargle, J. D., Schalk, T. L., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stamatikos, M., Stecker, F. W., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Toma, K., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Uehara, T., Usher, T. L., van der Horst, A. J., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., von Kienlin, A., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Wilson-Hodge, C., Winer, B. L., Wu, X. F., Yamazaki, R., Yang, Z., Ylinen, T., & Ziegler, M.. Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: A Short Hard Gamma-Ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-Law Component from 10 keV to GeV Energies. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/716/2/1178.
Ackermann, M., Asano, K., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Briggs, M. S., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Carrigan, S., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Connaughton, V., Dermer, C. D., de Palma, F., Dingus, B. L., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Granot, J., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kippen, R. M., Knödlseder, J., Kocevski, D., Kouveliotou, C., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Llena Garde, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., McGlynn, S., Meegan, C., Mészáros, P., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakajima, H., Nakamori, T., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paciesas, W. S., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Preece, R., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Ritz, S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sander, A., Scargle, J. D., Schalk, T. L., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stamatikos, M., Stecker, F. W., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Toma, K., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Uehara, T., Usher, T. L., van der Horst, A. J., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., von Kienlin, A., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Wilson-Hodge, C., Winer, B. L., Wu, X. F., Yamazaki, R., Yang, Z., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M.. Thu . "Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: A Short Hard Gamma-Ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-Law Component from 10 keV to GeV Energies". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/716/2/1178. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357548.
@article{osti_1357548,
title = {Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: A Short Hard Gamma-Ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-Law Component from 10 keV to GeV Energies},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Asano, K. and Atwood, W. B. and Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Baring, M. G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Bhat, P. N. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bouvier, A. and Bregeon, J. and Brez, A. and Briggs, M. S. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Carrigan, S. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cecchi, C. and Çelik, Ö. and Charles, E. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Connaughton, V. and Dermer, C. D. and de Palma, F. and Dingus, B. L. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Farnier, C. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Finke, J. and Focke, W. B. and Frailis, M. and Fukazawa, Y. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Granot, J. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guiriec, S. and Hadasch, D. and Harding, A. K. and Hays, E. and Horan, D. and Hughes, R. E. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, W. N. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Kawai, N. and Kippen, R. M. and Knödlseder, J. and Kocevski, D. and Kouveliotou, C. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Llena Garde, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Makeev, A. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and McGlynn, S. and Meegan, C. and Mészáros, P. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Moretti, E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nakajima, H. and Nakamori, T. and Nolan, P. L. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Ohno, M. and Ohsugi, T. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Ozaki, M. and Paciesas, W. S. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pelassa, V. and Pepe, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Preece, R. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Ritz, S. and Rodriguez, A. Y. and Roth, M. and Ryde, F. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Sander, A. and Scargle, J. D. and Schalk, T. L. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, P. D. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stamatikos, M. and Stecker, F. W. and Strickman, M. S. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Takahashi, H. and Takahashi, T. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. B. and Thayer, J. G. and Thompson, D. J. and Toma, K. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Uchiyama, Y. and Uehara, T. and Usher, T. L. and van der Horst, A. J. and Vasileiou, V. and Vilchez, N. and Vitale, V. and von Kienlin, A. and Waite, A. P. and Wang, P. and Wilson-Hodge, C. and Winer, B. L. and Wu, X. F. and Yamazaki, R. and Yang, Z. and Ylinen, T. and Ziegler, M.},
abstractNote = {We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with E peak = 3.9 ± 0.3 MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index –1.62 ± 0.03 that dominates the emission below ≈20 keV and above ≈100 MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by ~0.1 s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5 s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy 30.5+5.8 –2.6 GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observation of this photon sets a minimum bulk outflow Lorentz factor, Γ≳ 1200, using simple γγ opacity arguments for this GRB at redshift z = 0.903 and a variability timescale on the order of tens of ms for the ≈100 keV-few MeV flux. Stricter high confidence estimates imply Γ ≳ 1000 and still require that the outflows powering short GRBs are at least as highly relativistic as those of long-duration GRBs. Finally, implications of the temporal behavior and power-law shape of the additional component on synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton, external-shock synchrotron, and hadronic models are considered.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/716/2/1178},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 716,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu May 27 00:00:00 EDT 2010},
month = {Thu May 27 00:00:00 EDT 2010}
}

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  • We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with E{sub peak} = 3.9 {+-} 0.3 MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index -1.62 {+-} 0.03 that dominates the emission below {approx}20more » keV and above {approx}100 MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by {approx}0.1 s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5 s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy 30.5{sup +5.8}{sub -2.6} GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observation of this photon sets a minimum bulk outflow Lorentz factor, {Gamma}{approx_gt} 1200, using simple {gamma}{gamma} opacity arguments for this GRB at redshift z = 0.903 and a variability timescale on the order of tens of ms for the {approx}100 keV-few MeV flux. Stricter high confidence estimates imply {Gamma} {approx_gt} 1000 and still require that the outflows powering short GRBs are at least as highly relativistic as those of long-duration GRBs. Implications of the temporal behavior and power-law shape of the additional component on synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton, external-shock synchrotron, and hadronic models are considered.« less
  • Short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), typically lasting less than 2 s, are a special class of GRBs of great interest. We report the detection by the AGILE satellite of the short GRB 090510 which shows two clearly distinct emission phases: a prompt phase lasting {approx}200 ms and a second phase lasting tens of seconds. The prompt phase is relatively intense in the 0.3-10 MeV range with a spectrum characterized by a large peak/cutoff energy near 3 MeV; in this phase, no significant high-energy gamma-ray emission is detected. At the end of the prompt phase, intense gamma-ray emission above 30 MeV ismore » detected showing a power-law time decay of the flux of the type t {sup -1.3} and a broadband spectrum remarkably different from that of the prompt phase. It extends from sub-MeV to hundreds of MeV energies with a photon index {alpha} {approx_equal} 1.5. GRB 090510 provides the first case of a short GRB with delayed gamma-ray emission. We present the timing and spectral data of GRB 090510 and briefly discuss its remarkable properties within the current models of gamma-ray emission of short GRBs.« less
  • We present the observations of GRB090510 performed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and the Swift observatory. This is a bright, short burst that shows an extended emission detected in the GeV range. Furthermore, its optical emission initially rises, a feature so far observed only in long bursts, while the X-ray flux shows an initial shallow decrease, followed by a steeper decay. This exceptional behavior enables us to investigate the physical properties of the gamma-ray burst outflow, poorly known in short bursts. We discuss internal and external shock models for the broadband energy emission of this object.
  • Here, we present the observations of GRB090510 performed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and the Swift observatory. In a GeV range, we detected a bright, short burst that shows an extended emission. Furthermore, its optical emission initially rises, a feature so far observed only in long bursts, while the X-ray flux shows an initial shallow decrease, followed by a steeper decay. This exceptional behavior enables us to investigate the physical properties of the gamma-ray burst outflow, poorly known in short bursts. Here, we discuss internal and external shock models for the broadband energy emission of this object.