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Title: Six millisecond pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the radio/gamma-ray connection of millisecond pulsars

Abstract

In this work, we report on the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and timing ephemerides provided by various radio observatories. We also present confirmation of the gamma-ray pulsations from a sixth source, PSR J2051-0827. Five of these six MSPs are in binary systems: PSRs J1713+0747, J1741+1351, J1600-3053 and the two black widow binary pulsars PSRs J0610-2100 and J2051-0827. The only isolated MSP is the nearby PSR J1024-0719, which is also known to emit X-rays. We present X-ray observations in the direction of PSRs J1600-3053 and J2051-0827. While PSR J2051-0827 is firmly detected, we can only give upper limits for the X-ray flux of PSR J1600-3053. There are no dedicated X-ray observations available for the other three objects. The MSPs mentioned above, together with most of the MSPs detected by Fermi, are used to put together a sample of 30 gamma-ray MSPs. This sample is used to study the morphology and phase connection of radio and gamma-ray pulse profiles. We show that MSPs with pulsed gamma-ray emission which is phase-aligned with the radio emission present the steepest radio spectra and the largest magnetic fields at the light cylinder among allmore » MSPs. Also, we observe a trend towards very low, or undetectable, radio linear polarization levels. These properties could be attributed to caustic radio emission produced at a range of different altitudes in the magnetosphere. In conclusion, we note that most of these characteristics are also observed in the Crab pulsar, the only other radio pulsar known to exhibit phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray emission.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi-LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1356598
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 430; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; pulsars: general; gamma-rays: general; X-rays: general

Citation Formats

Espinoza, C. M., Guillemot, L., Celik, O., Weltevrede, P., Stappers, B. W., Smith, D. A., Kerr, M., Zavlin, V. E., Cognard, I., Eatough, R. P., Freire, P. C. C., Janssen, G. H., Camilo, F., Desvignes, G., Hewitt, J. W., Hou, X., Johnston, S., Keith, M., Kramer, M., Lyne, A., Manchester, R. N., Ransom, S. M., Ray, P. S., Shannon, R., Theureau, G., and Webb, N. Six millisecond pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the radio/gamma-ray connection of millisecond pulsars. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/sts657.
Espinoza, C. M., Guillemot, L., Celik, O., Weltevrede, P., Stappers, B. W., Smith, D. A., Kerr, M., Zavlin, V. E., Cognard, I., Eatough, R. P., Freire, P. C. C., Janssen, G. H., Camilo, F., Desvignes, G., Hewitt, J. W., Hou, X., Johnston, S., Keith, M., Kramer, M., Lyne, A., Manchester, R. N., Ransom, S. M., Ray, P. S., Shannon, R., Theureau, G., & Webb, N. Six millisecond pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the radio/gamma-ray connection of millisecond pulsars. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/sts657.
Espinoza, C. M., Guillemot, L., Celik, O., Weltevrede, P., Stappers, B. W., Smith, D. A., Kerr, M., Zavlin, V. E., Cognard, I., Eatough, R. P., Freire, P. C. C., Janssen, G. H., Camilo, F., Desvignes, G., Hewitt, J. W., Hou, X., Johnston, S., Keith, M., Kramer, M., Lyne, A., Manchester, R. N., Ransom, S. M., Ray, P. S., Shannon, R., Theureau, G., and Webb, N. Fri . "Six millisecond pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the radio/gamma-ray connection of millisecond pulsars". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/sts657. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356598.
@article{osti_1356598,
title = {Six millisecond pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the radio/gamma-ray connection of millisecond pulsars},
author = {Espinoza, C. M. and Guillemot, L. and Celik, O. and Weltevrede, P. and Stappers, B. W. and Smith, D. A. and Kerr, M. and Zavlin, V. E. and Cognard, I. and Eatough, R. P. and Freire, P. C. C. and Janssen, G. H. and Camilo, F. and Desvignes, G. and Hewitt, J. W. and Hou, X. and Johnston, S. and Keith, M. and Kramer, M. and Lyne, A. and Manchester, R. N. and Ransom, S. M. and Ray, P. S. and Shannon, R. and Theureau, G. and Webb, N.},
abstractNote = {In this work, we report on the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and timing ephemerides provided by various radio observatories. We also present confirmation of the gamma-ray pulsations from a sixth source, PSR J2051-0827. Five of these six MSPs are in binary systems: PSRs J1713+0747, J1741+1351, J1600-3053 and the two black widow binary pulsars PSRs J0610-2100 and J2051-0827. The only isolated MSP is the nearby PSR J1024-0719, which is also known to emit X-rays. We present X-ray observations in the direction of PSRs J1600-3053 and J2051-0827. While PSR J2051-0827 is firmly detected, we can only give upper limits for the X-ray flux of PSR J1600-3053. There are no dedicated X-ray observations available for the other three objects. The MSPs mentioned above, together with most of the MSPs detected by Fermi, are used to put together a sample of 30 gamma-ray MSPs. This sample is used to study the morphology and phase connection of radio and gamma-ray pulse profiles. We show that MSPs with pulsed gamma-ray emission which is phase-aligned with the radio emission present the steepest radio spectra and the largest magnetic fields at the light cylinder among all MSPs. Also, we observe a trend towards very low, or undetectable, radio linear polarization levels. These properties could be attributed to caustic radio emission produced at a range of different altitudes in the magnetosphere. In conclusion, we note that most of these characteristics are also observed in the Crab pulsar, the only other radio pulsar known to exhibit phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray emission.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/sts657},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 1,
volume = 430,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 25 00:00:00 EST 2013},
month = {Fri Jan 25 00:00:00 EST 2013}
}

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  • We report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays for PSRs J0631+1036, J0659+1414, J0742-2822, J1420-6048, J1509-5850, and J1718-3825 using the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly known as GLAST). Although these six pulsars are diverse in terms of their spin parameters, they share an important feature: their gamma-ray light curves are (at least given the current count statistics) single peaked. For two pulsars, there are hints for a double-peaked structure in the light curves. The shapes of the observed light curves of this group of pulsars are discussed in the light of models for which the emissionmore » originates from high up in the magnetosphere. The observed phases of the gamma-ray light curves are, in general, consistent with those predicted by high-altitude models, although we speculate that the gamma-ray emission of PSR J0659+1414, possibly featuring the softest spectrum of all Fermi pulsars coupled with a very low efficiency, arises from relatively low down in the magnetosphere. High-quality radio polarization data are available showing that all but one have a high degree of linear polarization. This allows us to place some constraints on the viewing geometry and aids the comparison of the gamma-ray light curves with high-energy beam models.« less
  • Here, we report the detection of pulsed γ-rays for PSRs J0631+1036, J0659+1414, J0742-2822, J1420-6048, J1509-5850, and J1718-3825 using the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly known as GLAST). Although these six pulsars are diverse in terms of their spin parameters, they share an important feature: their γ-ray light curves are (at least given the current count statistics) single peaked. For two pulsars, there are hints for a double-peaked structure in the light curves. The shapes of the observed light curves of this group of pulsars are discussed in the light of models for which themore » emission originates from high up in the magnetosphere. We observed phases of the γ-ray light curves are and, in general, they are consistent with those predicted by high-altitude models, although we speculate that the γ-ray emission of PSR J0659+1414, possibly featuring the softest spectrum of all Fermi pulsars coupled with a very low efficiency, arises from relatively low down in the magnetosphere. High-quality radio polarization data are available showing that all but one have a high degree of linear polarization. Furthermore, this allows us to place some constraints on the viewing geometry and aids the comparison of the γ-ray light curves with high-energy beam models.« less
  • Context. Here, GeV gamma-ray pulsations from over 140 pulsars have been characterized using the Fermi Large Area Telescope, enabling improved understanding of the emission regions within the neutron star magnetospheres, and the contributions of pulsars to high energy electrons and diffuse gamma rays in the Milky Way. The first gamma-ray pulsars to be detected were the most intense and/or those with narrow pulses. Aims. As the Fermi mission progresses, progressively fainter objects can be studied. In addition to more distant pulsars (thus probing a larger volume of the Galaxy), or ones in high background regions (thus improving the sampling uniformitymore » across the Galactic plane), we detect pulsars with broader pulses or lower luminosity. Adding pulsars to our catalog with inclination angles that are rare in the observed sample, and/or with lower spindown power, will reduce the bias in the currently known gamma-ray pulsar population. Methods. We use rotation ephemerides derived from radio observations to phase-fold gamma rays recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, to then determine the pulse profile properties. Spectral analysis provides the luminosities and, when the signal-to-noise ratio allows, the cutoff energies. We constrain the pulsar distances by different means in order to minimize the luminosity uncertainties. Results. We present six new gamma-ray pulsars with an eclectic mix of properties. Three are young, and three are recycled. They include the farthest, the lowest power, two of the highest duty-cycle pulsars seen, and only the fourth young gamma-ray pulsar with a radio interpulse. Finally, we discuss the biases existing in the current gamma-ray pulsar catalog, and steps to be taken to mitigate the bias.« less