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Title: Characterization of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Woody Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

Abstract

This paper reports a study of the chemical composition of the water soluble (WS) fraction obtained by cold water precipitation of two commercial wood pyrolysis oils (BTG and Amaron). The fraction studied accounts for between 50.3 and 51.3 wt. % of the oils. With the most common analytical techniques used today for the characterization of this fraction (KF titration, GC/MS, hydrolysable sugars and total carbohydrates), it is possible to quantify only between 45 and 50 wt. % of it. Our results confirm that most of the total carbohydrates (hydrolysable sugars and non-hydrolysable) are soluble in water. The ion chromatography hydrolysis method showed that between 11.6 and 17.3 wt. % of these oils were hydrolysable sugars. A small quantity of phenols detectable by GC/MS (between 2.5 and 3.9 wt. %) were identified. It is postulated that the unknown high molecular weight fraction (30-55 wt. %) is formed by highly dehydrated sugars rich in carbonyl groups and WS phenols. The overall content of carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phenolic compounds in the WS fraction were quantified by titration, Folin-Ciocalteu, 31P-NMR and 1H-NMR. The WS fraction contains between 5.5 and 6.2 mmol/g of carbonyl groups, between 0.4 and 1.0 mmol/g of carboxylic acid groups,more » between 1.2 and 1.8 mmol/g phenolic -OH, and between 6.0 and 7.9 mmol/g of aliphatic alcohol groups. Translation into weight fractions of the WS was done by supposing surrogate structures for the water soluble phenols, carbonyl and carboxyl groups and we estimated the content of WS phenols (21-27 wt. %), carbonyl (5-14 wt.%), and carboxyl (0-4 wt.%). Together with the total carbohydrates (23-27 wt.%), this approach leads to > 90 wt. % of the WS material in the bio-oils being quantified. We speculate the larger portion of the difference between the total carbohydrates and hydrolysable sugars is the missing furanic fraction. Further refinement of the suggested methods and development of separation schemes to obtain and quantify sub-fractions with homogeneous composition (e.g. carbohydrates, high molecular weight WS phenols, furans, and dehydrated sugars) warrant further investigation.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
OSTI Identifier:
1356497
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-121870
Journal ID: ISSN 0887-0624
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Energy and Fuels; Journal Volume: 31; Journal Issue: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Stankovikj, Filip, McDonald, Armando G., Helms, Gregory L., Olarte, Mariefel V., and Garcia-Perez, Manuel. Characterization of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Woody Biomass Pyrolysis Oils. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02950.
Stankovikj, Filip, McDonald, Armando G., Helms, Gregory L., Olarte, Mariefel V., & Garcia-Perez, Manuel. Characterization of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Woody Biomass Pyrolysis Oils. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02950.
Stankovikj, Filip, McDonald, Armando G., Helms, Gregory L., Olarte, Mariefel V., and Garcia-Perez, Manuel. Tue . "Characterization of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Woody Biomass Pyrolysis Oils". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02950.
@article{osti_1356497,
title = {Characterization of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Woody Biomass Pyrolysis Oils},
author = {Stankovikj, Filip and McDonald, Armando G. and Helms, Gregory L. and Olarte, Mariefel V. and Garcia-Perez, Manuel},
abstractNote = {This paper reports a study of the chemical composition of the water soluble (WS) fraction obtained by cold water precipitation of two commercial wood pyrolysis oils (BTG and Amaron). The fraction studied accounts for between 50.3 and 51.3 wt. % of the oils. With the most common analytical techniques used today for the characterization of this fraction (KF titration, GC/MS, hydrolysable sugars and total carbohydrates), it is possible to quantify only between 45 and 50 wt. % of it. Our results confirm that most of the total carbohydrates (hydrolysable sugars and non-hydrolysable) are soluble in water. The ion chromatography hydrolysis method showed that between 11.6 and 17.3 wt. % of these oils were hydrolysable sugars. A small quantity of phenols detectable by GC/MS (between 2.5 and 3.9 wt. %) were identified. It is postulated that the unknown high molecular weight fraction (30-55 wt. %) is formed by highly dehydrated sugars rich in carbonyl groups and WS phenols. The overall content of carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phenolic compounds in the WS fraction were quantified by titration, Folin-Ciocalteu, 31P-NMR and 1H-NMR. The WS fraction contains between 5.5 and 6.2 mmol/g of carbonyl groups, between 0.4 and 1.0 mmol/g of carboxylic acid groups, between 1.2 and 1.8 mmol/g phenolic -OH, and between 6.0 and 7.9 mmol/g of aliphatic alcohol groups. Translation into weight fractions of the WS was done by supposing surrogate structures for the water soluble phenols, carbonyl and carboxyl groups and we estimated the content of WS phenols (21-27 wt. %), carbonyl (5-14 wt.%), and carboxyl (0-4 wt.%). Together with the total carbohydrates (23-27 wt.%), this approach leads to > 90 wt. % of the WS material in the bio-oils being quantified. We speculate the larger portion of the difference between the total carbohydrates and hydrolysable sugars is the missing furanic fraction. Further refinement of the suggested methods and development of separation schemes to obtain and quantify sub-fractions with homogeneous composition (e.g. carbohydrates, high molecular weight WS phenols, furans, and dehydrated sugars) warrant further investigation.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02950},
journal = {Energy and Fuels},
number = 2,
volume = 31,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 31 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Jan 31 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • Aliquots of water soluble fractions of crude and refined oils were extracted with 5 ml of n-hexane using vortex mixing. The organic layers were removed, dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and the aromatic hydrocarbon contents estimated by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Solutions were excited at 300 nm, the emission scanned from 310-390 nm and the fluorescence emission intensity of the main peaks measured and reported as equivalents of the respective oils. Results show that the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons present in water soluble fractions of oils is dependent on the mixing time, temperature and the initial quantity of oil present. Thereforemore » to obtain reproducible water soluble fractions of oils for toxicity studies these variables need to be controlled. Synchronous fluorescence provides a rapid means of broadly characterizing the types of aromatic hydrocarbons present in water soluble fractions of oils. (JMT)« less
  • Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBKmore » wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.« less