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Title: H0LiCOW – IV. Lens mass model of HE 0435-1223 and blind measurement of its time-delay distance for cosmology

Abstract

Strong gravitational lenses with measured time delays between the multiple images allow a direct measurement of the time-delay distance to the lens, and thus a measure of cosmological parameters, particularly the Hubble constant, H0. We present a blind lens model analysis of the quadruply imaged quasar lens HE 0435-1223 using deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, updated time-delay measurements from the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses (COSMOGRAIL), a measurement of the velocity dispersion of the lens galaxy based on Keck data, and a characterization of the mass distribution along the line of sight. HE 0435-1223 is the third lens analysed as a part of the H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring (H0LiCOW) project. We account for various sources of systematic uncertainty, including the detailed treatment of nearby perturbers, the parametrization of the galaxy light and mass profile, and the regions used for lens modelling. We constrain the effective time-delay distance to be D Δt=2612$$+208\atop{-191}$$Mpc, a precision of 7.6 per cent. From HE 0435-1223 alone, we infer a Hubble constant of H 0=73.1$$+5.7\atop{-6.0}$$kms -1Mpc -1 assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology. Lastly, the cosmographic inference based on the three lenses analysed by H0LiCOW to date is presented in a companion paper (H0LiCOW Paper V).

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [5]
  1. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  2. Max Planck Society, Garching (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Astrophysik; Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Technische Univ. Munchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. Physik
  3. Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Astronomy
  4. Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (Switzlerland). Laboratoire d'Astrophysique
  5. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  6. Univ. of Liege, (Belgium). Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Inst.
  7. Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe
  8. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  9. Univ. of Portsmouth (United Kingdom). Inst. of Cosmology and Gravitation
  10. Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany)
  11. Univ. of Groningen (The Netherlands). Kapteyn Astronomical Inst.
  12. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan; Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1353197
Grant/Contract Number:  
MOST-103-2112-M-001-003-MY3; AST-1312329; AST-1450141; 639.043.308; AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 465; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gravitational lensing; strong cosmological parameters; distance scale

Citation Formats

Wong, Kenneth C., Suyu, Sherry H., Auger, Matthew W., Bonvin, Vivien, Courbin, Frederic, Fassnacht, Christopher D., Halkola, Aleksi, Rusu, Cristian E., Sluse, Dominique, Sonnenfeld, Alessandro, Treu, Tommaso, Collett, Thomas E., Hilbert, Stefan, Koopmans, Leon V. E., Marshall, Philip J., and Rumbaugh, Nicholas. H0LiCOW – IV. Lens mass model of HE 0435-1223 and blind measurement of its time-delay distance for cosmology. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw3077.
Wong, Kenneth C., Suyu, Sherry H., Auger, Matthew W., Bonvin, Vivien, Courbin, Frederic, Fassnacht, Christopher D., Halkola, Aleksi, Rusu, Cristian E., Sluse, Dominique, Sonnenfeld, Alessandro, Treu, Tommaso, Collett, Thomas E., Hilbert, Stefan, Koopmans, Leon V. E., Marshall, Philip J., & Rumbaugh, Nicholas. H0LiCOW – IV. Lens mass model of HE 0435-1223 and blind measurement of its time-delay distance for cosmology. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw3077.
Wong, Kenneth C., Suyu, Sherry H., Auger, Matthew W., Bonvin, Vivien, Courbin, Frederic, Fassnacht, Christopher D., Halkola, Aleksi, Rusu, Cristian E., Sluse, Dominique, Sonnenfeld, Alessandro, Treu, Tommaso, Collett, Thomas E., Hilbert, Stefan, Koopmans, Leon V. E., Marshall, Philip J., and Rumbaugh, Nicholas. Tue . "H0LiCOW – IV. Lens mass model of HE 0435-1223 and blind measurement of its time-delay distance for cosmology". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw3077. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1353197.
@article{osti_1353197,
title = {H0LiCOW – IV. Lens mass model of HE 0435-1223 and blind measurement of its time-delay distance for cosmology},
author = {Wong, Kenneth C. and Suyu, Sherry H. and Auger, Matthew W. and Bonvin, Vivien and Courbin, Frederic and Fassnacht, Christopher D. and Halkola, Aleksi and Rusu, Cristian E. and Sluse, Dominique and Sonnenfeld, Alessandro and Treu, Tommaso and Collett, Thomas E. and Hilbert, Stefan and Koopmans, Leon V. E. and Marshall, Philip J. and Rumbaugh, Nicholas},
abstractNote = {Strong gravitational lenses with measured time delays between the multiple images allow a direct measurement of the time-delay distance to the lens, and thus a measure of cosmological parameters, particularly the Hubble constant, H0. We present a blind lens model analysis of the quadruply imaged quasar lens HE 0435-1223 using deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, updated time-delay measurements from the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses (COSMOGRAIL), a measurement of the velocity dispersion of the lens galaxy based on Keck data, and a characterization of the mass distribution along the line of sight. HE 0435-1223 is the third lens analysed as a part of the H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring (H0LiCOW) project. We account for various sources of systematic uncertainty, including the detailed treatment of nearby perturbers, the parametrization of the galaxy light and mass profile, and the regions used for lens modelling. We constrain the effective time-delay distance to be DΔt=2612$+208\atop{-191}$Mpc, a precision of 7.6 per cent. From HE 0435-1223 alone, we infer a Hubble constant of H0=73.1$+5.7\atop{-6.0}$kms-1Mpc-1 assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology. Lastly, the cosmographic inference based on the three lenses analysed by H0LiCOW to date is presented in a companion paper (H0LiCOW Paper V).},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stw3077},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
issn = {0035-8711},
number = 4,
volume = 465,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {11}
}

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    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1603

    Unified lensing and kinematic analysis for any elliptical mass profile
    journal, July 2019

    • Shajib, Anowar J.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 488, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1796

    Cosmological Distance Indicators
    journal, July 2018

    • Suyu, Sherry H.; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Courbin, Frédéric
    • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 214, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11214-018-0524-3

    COSMOGRAIL: XVIII. time delays of the quadruply lensed quasar WFI2033−4723⋆
    journal, September 2019


    H0LiCOW – I. H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring: program overview
    journal, February 2017

    • Suyu, S. H.; Bonvin, V.; Courbin, F.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 468, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx483

    Galaxy mass profiles from strong lensing I: the circular power-law model
    journal, June 2019

    • O’Riordan, C. M.; Warren, S. J.; Mortlock, D. J.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1603

    Unified lensing and kinematic analysis for any elliptical mass profile
    journal, July 2019

    • Shajib, Anowar J.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 488, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1796

    Fast point spread function modeling with deep learning
    journal, July 2018

    • Herbel, Jörg; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Amara, Adam
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 07
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2018/07/054

    Precision cosmology from future lensed gravitational wave and electromagnetic signals
    journal, October 2017


    Strongly lensed repeating fast radio bursts as precision probes of the universe
    journal, September 2018


    Ambiguities in gravitational lens models: impact on time delays of the source position transformation
    journal, September 2018


    A dedicated source-position transformation package: pySPT
    journal, November 2018


    Impact of the 3D source geometry on time-delay measurements of lensed type-Ia supernovae
    journal, January 2019


    Deriving the Hubble constant using Planck and XMM-Newton observations of galaxy clusters
    journal, January 2019


    The Hubble constant determined through an inverse distance ladder including quasar time delays and Type Ia supernovae
    journal, August 2019


    Probing dark matter substructure in the gravitational lens HE 0435−1223 with the WFC3 grism
    journal, June 2017

    • Nierenberg, A. M.; Treu, T.; Brammer, G.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 471, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1400

    Strongly lensed gravitational waves and electromagnetic signals as powerful cosmic rulers
    journal, September 2017

    • Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 472, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2210

    AutoLens: automated modeling of a strong lens’s light, mass, and source
    journal, May 2018

    • Nightingale, J. W.; Dye, S.; Massey, Richard J.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 478, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1264

    The impact of microlensing on the standardization of strongly lensed Type Ia supernovae
    journal, May 2018

    • Foxley-Marrable, Max; Collett, Thomas E.; Vernardos, Georgios
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 478, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1346

    Probing the nature of dark matter by forward modelling flux ratios in strong gravitational lenses
    journal, August 2018

    • Gilman, Daniel; Birrer, Simon; Treu, Tommaso
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2261

    Constraining the microlensing effect on time delays with a new time-delay prediction model in H0 measurements
    journal, September 2018

    • Chen, Geoff C-F; Chan, James H. H.; Bonvin, Vivien
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2350

    Is every strong lens model unhappy in its own way? Uniform modelling of a sample of 13 quadruply+ imaged quasars
    journal, December 2018

    • Shajib, A. J.; Birrer, S.; Treu, T.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 483, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3397

    H0LiCOW – IX. Cosmographic analysis of the doubly imaged quasar SDSS 1206+4332 and a new measurement of the Hubble constant
    journal, January 2019

    • Birrer, S.; Treu, T.; Rusu, C. E.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 484, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz200

    Astrometric requirements for strong lensing time-delay cosmography
    journal, August 2019

    • Birrer, Simon; Treu, Tommaso
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 489, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2254

    A SHARP view of H0LiCOW: H0 from three time-delay gravitational lens systems with adaptive optics imaging
    journal, September 2019

    • Chen, Geoff C-F; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Suyu, Sherry H.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 490, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2547

    Warm dark matter chills out: constraints on the halo mass function and the free-streaming length of dark matter with eight quadruple-image strong gravitational lenses
    journal, December 2019

    • Gilman, Daniel; Birrer, Simon; Nierenberg, Anna
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 491, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz3480

    Model-Independent Determination of H 0 and Ω K 0 from Strong Lensing and Type Ia Supernovae
    journal, December 2019


    A precise extragalactic test of General Relativity
    journal, June 2018

    • Collett, Thomas E.; Oldham, Lindsay J.; Smith, Russell J.
    • Science, Vol. 360, Issue 6395
    • DOI: 10.1126/science.aao2469

    A measurement of the Hubble constant from angular diameter distances to two gravitational lenses
    journal, September 2019


    Analysis of the Angular Dependence of Time Delay in Gravitational Lensing
    journal, July 2018

    • Alchera, Nicola; Bonici, Marco; Cardinale, Roberta
    • Symmetry, Vol. 10, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.3390/sym10070246

    A Spectroscopic Survey of the Fields of 28 Strong Gravitational Lenses: Implications for H 0
    journal, November 2017

    • Wilson, Michelle L.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Keeton, Charles R.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 850, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa9653

    Precise Time Delays from Strongly Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae with Chromatically Microlensed Images
    journal, March 2018

    • Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasen, Daniel N.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 855, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaa975

    Measuring the Value of the Hubble Constant “à la Refsdal”
    journal, June 2018


    Survey of Gravitationally Lensed Objects in HSC Imaging (SuGOHI). II. Environments and Line-of-Sight Structure of Strong Gravitational Lens Galaxies to z ∼ 0.8
    journal, November 2018

    • Wong, Kenneth C.; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Chan, James H. H.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 867, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aae381

    Estimate of the Accretion Disk Size in the Gravitationally Lensed Quasar HE 0435–1223 Using Microlensing Magnification Statistics
    journal, December 2018

    • Fian, C.; Mediavilla, E.; Jiménez-Vicente, J.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 869, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaeed5

    Hubble Constant from LSST Strong-lens Time Delays with Microlensing Systematics
    journal, January 2019


    Scientific Synergy between LSST and Euclid
    journal, December 2017

    • Rhodes, Jason; Nichol, Robert C.; Aubourg, Éric
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 233, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aa96b0

    Cosmic Shear with Einstein Rings
    journal, January 2018

    • Birrer, Simon; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 852, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaa1de

    The Hubble Constant from SN Refsdal
    journal, February 2018

    • Vega-Ferrero, J.; Diego, J. M.; Miranda, V.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 853, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaa95f