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Title: Structural Evolution and Atom Clustering in β-SiAlON: β-Si 6–z Al z O z N 8–z

Abstract

SiAlON ceramics, solid solutions based on the Si 3N 4 structure, are important, lightweight structural materials with intrinsically high strength, high hardness, and high thermal and chemical stability. Described by the chemical formula β-Si 6–zAl zO zN 8–z, from a compositional viewpoint, these materials can be regarded as solid solutions between Si 3N 4 and Al 3O 3N. A key aspect of the structural evolution with increasing Al and O (z in the formula) is to understand how these elements are distributed on the β-Si 3N 4 framework. The average and local structural evolution of highly phase-pure samples of β-Si 6–zAl zO zN 8–z with z = 0.050, 0.075, and 0.125 are studied here, using a combination of X-ray diffraction, NMR studies, and density functional theory calculations. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction establishes sample purity and indicates subtle changes in the average structure with increasing Al content in these compounds. Solid-state magic-angle-spinning 27Al NMR experiments, coupled with detailed ab initio calculations of NMR spectra of Al in different AlO qN 4–q tetrahedra (0 ≤ q ≤ 4), reveal a tendency of Al and O to cluster in these materials. Independently, the calculations suggest an energetic preference for Al–O bond formation, instead ofmore » a random distribution, in the β-SiAlON system.« less

Authors:
; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1352267
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Inorganic Chemistry; Journal Volume: 56; Journal Issue: 4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Cozzan, Clayton, Griffith, Kent J., Laurita, Geneva, Hu, Jerry G., Grey, Clare P., and Seshadri, Ram. Structural Evolution and Atom Clustering in β-SiAlON: β-Si 6–z Al z O z N 8–z. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b02780.
Cozzan, Clayton, Griffith, Kent J., Laurita, Geneva, Hu, Jerry G., Grey, Clare P., & Seshadri, Ram. Structural Evolution and Atom Clustering in β-SiAlON: β-Si 6–z Al z O z N 8–z. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b02780.
Cozzan, Clayton, Griffith, Kent J., Laurita, Geneva, Hu, Jerry G., Grey, Clare P., and Seshadri, Ram. Mon . "Structural Evolution and Atom Clustering in β-SiAlON: β-Si 6–z Al z O z N 8–z". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b02780.
@article{osti_1352267,
title = {Structural Evolution and Atom Clustering in β-SiAlON: β-Si 6–z Al z O z N 8–z},
author = {Cozzan, Clayton and Griffith, Kent J. and Laurita, Geneva and Hu, Jerry G. and Grey, Clare P. and Seshadri, Ram},
abstractNote = {SiAlON ceramics, solid solutions based on the Si3N4 structure, are important, lightweight structural materials with intrinsically high strength, high hardness, and high thermal and chemical stability. Described by the chemical formula β-Si6–zAlzOzN8–z, from a compositional viewpoint, these materials can be regarded as solid solutions between Si3N4 and Al3O3N. A key aspect of the structural evolution with increasing Al and O (z in the formula) is to understand how these elements are distributed on the β-Si3N4 framework. The average and local structural evolution of highly phase-pure samples of β-Si6–zAlzOzN8–z with z = 0.050, 0.075, and 0.125 are studied here, using a combination of X-ray diffraction, NMR studies, and density functional theory calculations. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction establishes sample purity and indicates subtle changes in the average structure with increasing Al content in these compounds. Solid-state magic-angle-spinning 27Al NMR experiments, coupled with detailed ab initio calculations of NMR spectra of Al in different AlOqN4–q tetrahedra (0 ≤ q ≤ 4), reveal a tendency of Al and O to cluster in these materials. Independently, the calculations suggest an energetic preference for Al–O bond formation, instead of a random distribution, in the β-SiAlON system.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b02780},
journal = {Inorganic Chemistry},
number = 4,
volume = 56,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Feb 06 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Feb 06 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • The crystal structure and phonon densities of states (DOS) of {beta}{prime}-SiAlON ceramics, Si{sub 6{minus}z}Al{sub z}O{sup z}N{sub 8{minus}z} (0 {le} z {le} 4), prepared by a novel slipcast method, are studied by neutron-scattering techniques. The samples with z < 4 form a single-phase solid solution of Si-Al-O-N isostructural to {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (space group P6{sub 3}/m). A consistent preferential occupation of the 2c sites by oxygen atoms and the 6h sites by nitrogen atoms exists within this structure. The phonon DOS of {beta}{prime}-SiAlON displays phonon bands at {approximately}50 and 115 meV. These features are considerably broader than the corresponding ones inmore » {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder.« less
  • The crystal structure, electronic structure, and photoluminescence properties of Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x}O{sub z+x}N{sub 8-z-x} (x=0-0.1, 0<z<1) and Eu{sub x}M{sub y}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x-y}O{sub z+x+y}N{sub 8-z-x-y} (M=2Li, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) have been studied. Single-phase Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x}O{sub z+x}N{sub 8-z-x} can be obtained in very narrow ranges of x{<=}0.06 (z=0.15) and z<0.5 (x=0.3), indicating that limited Eu{sup 2+} ions can be incorporated into nitrogen-rich Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z}O{sub z}N{sub 8-z}. The Eu{sup 2+} ion is found to occupy the 2b site in a hexagonal unit cell (P6{sub 3}/m) and directly connected by six adjacent nitrogen/oxygen atoms ranging 2.4850-2.5089 A. The calculatedmore » host band gaps by the relativistic DV-X{alpha} method are about 5.55 and 5.45 eV (without Eu{sup 2+} 4f5d levels) for x=0 and 0.013 in Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x}O{sub z+x}N{sub 8-z-x} (z=0.15), in which the top of the 5d orbitals overlap with the Si-3s3p and N-2p orbitals within the bottom of the conduction band of the host. Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x}O{sub z+x}N{sub 8-z-x} shows a strong green emission with a broad Eu{sup 2+} band centered at about 530 nm under UV to near-UV excitation range. The excitation and emission spectra are hardly modified by Eu concentration and dual-doping ions of Li and other alkaline-earth ions with Eu. Higher Eu concentrations can significantly quench the luminescence of Eu{sup 2+} and decrease the thermal quenching temperature. In addition, the emission spectrum can only be slightly tuned to the longer wavelengths ({approx}529-545 nm) by increasing z within the solid solution range of z<0.5. Furthermore, the luminescence intensity of Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x}O{sub z+x}N{sub 8-z-x} can be improved by increasing z and the dual-doping of Li and Ba. - Graphical abstract: Excitation and emission spectra of Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x}O{sub z+x}N{sub 8-z-x} with the project of a 2x2x2 supercell crystal structure viewed along (001), in which red spheres are the Eu atoms.« less
  • Inorganic phosphor materials play a crucial role in the creation of white light from blue and near-UV solid-state light-emitting diodes. Understanding the intricacies of the phosphor structure is key for setting the stage for improved, more efficient functionality. Average structure and coordination environment analysis of the robust and efficient green-emitting phosphor, β-SiAlON:Eu 2+ (β-Si 6–zAl zO zN 8–zEu 0.009), is combined here with a range of property measurements to elucidate the role of Al content ( z) in luminescence properties, including the red shift of emission and the thermal quenching of luminescence as a function of increasing Al content z.more » Average structure techniques reveal changes in polyhedral distortion with increasing z for the 9-coordinate Eu site in β-SiAlON:Eu 2+. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) is used to confirm that the majority of the activator Eu is in the Eu 2+ state, exhibiting the symmetry-allowed and efficient 4f 75d 0 → 4f 65d 1 transitions. As a result, room temperature and temperature-dependent luminescence indicate a curious increase in thermal stability with increasing z over a small range due to an increasing barrier for thermal ionization, which is correlated to an increase in the quantum yield of the phosphor.« less
    Cited by 1
  • A new aluminum silicon oxycarbonitride, (Al{sub 5.8}Si{sub 1.2})(O{sub 1.0}C{sub 3.5}N{sub 1.5}), has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The title compound is hexagonal with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc and unit-cell dimensions a=0.322508(4) nm, c=3.17193(4) nm and V=0.285717(6) nm{sup 3}. The atom ratios of Al:Si and those of O:C:N were, respectively, determined by EDX and EELS. The initial structural model was successfully derived from the XRPD data by the direct methods and further refined by the Rietveld method. The crystal is most probablymore » composed of four types of domains with nearly the same fraction, each of which is isotypic to Al{sub 7}C{sub 3}N{sub 3} with space group P6{sub 3}mc. The existence of another new oxycarbonitride (Al{sub 6.6}Si{sub 1.4})(O{sub 0.7}C{sub 4.3}N{sub 2.0}), which must be homeotypic to Al{sub 8}C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, has been also demonstrated by XRPD and TEM. - Graphical abstract: A new oxycarbonitride discovered in the Al-Si-O-C-N system, (Al{sub 7-x}Si{sub x})(O{sub y}C{sub z}N{sub 6-y-z}) (x{approx}1.2, y{approx}1.0 and z{approx}3.5). The crystal is composed of four types of domains (I, II, III and IV), and hence the structure is represented by a split-atom model. Individual crystal structures can be regarded as layered structures, which consist of A-type [(Al, Si){sub 4}(O, C, N){sub 4}] unit layers and B-type [(Al, Si)(O, C, N){sub 2}] single layers. Highlights: > (Al{sub 5.8}Si{sub 1.2})(O{sub 1.0}C{sub 3.5}N{sub 1.5}) as a new aluminum silicon oxycarbonitride. > Crystal structure is determined and represented by a split-atom model. > Existence of another new oxycarbonitride (Al{sub 6.6}Si{sub 1.4})(O{sub 0.7}C{sub 4.3}N{sub 2.0}) is demonstrated. > Both new materials are formed by oxidation and nitridation of (Al, Si){sub 6}(O, C){sub 5}.« less
  • Local environments of solutes in {beta}- and spinel Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z}O{sub z}N{sub 8-z} are investigated by means of Al K x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The experimental spectra are found to be the same throughout the wide solubility range. This suggests that the local environments of Al are independent of the solute concentration. First-principles band-structure calculations are systematically made to interpret the experimental spectra. Effect of a core hole was included into the calculation. Theoretical spectra were obtained using variety of different model structures constructed by a set of plane-wave pseudopotentials calculations in our previous study [K. Tatsumi, I. Tanaka, H.more » Adachi, and M. Yoshiya, Phys. Rev. B 66, 165210 (2002)]. The numbers of models were 51 and 45 for both {beta} and spinel, respectively. They are classified and averaged according to the local atomic structure of Al solutes. The combination of experimental spectra and theoretical results can unambiguously lead to the conclusion that Al atoms are preferentially coordinated by O atoms in both {beta} and spinel phases. This is consistent with the conclusion obtained by the first-principles total-energy calculations. In the spinel phase, Al atoms are found to be located preferentially at the octahedral cationic site. This agrees with the conclusion in a recent report on the nuclear magnetic resonance experiment.« less