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Title: Cofactor Specificity of the Bifunctional Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (AdhE) in Wild-Type and Mutant Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum

Abstract

Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticumare thermophilic bacteria that have been engineered to produce ethanol from the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of biomass, respectively. Although engineered strains of T. saccharolyticumproduce ethanol with a yield of 90% of the theoretical maximum, engineered strains ofC. thermocellumproduce ethanol at lower yields (~50% of the theoretical maximum). In the course of engineering these strains, a number of mutations have been discovered in theiradhEgenes, which encode both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. To understand the effects of these mutations, theadhEgenes from six strains ofC. thermocellumandT. saccharolyticumwere cloned and expressed inEscherichia coli, the enzymes produced were purified by affinity chromatography, and enzyme activity was measured. In wild-type strains of both organisms, NADH was the preferred cofactor for both ALDH and ADH activities. In high-ethanol-producing (ethanologen) strains ofT. saccharolyticum, both ALDH and ADH activities showed increased NADPH-linked activity. Interestingly, the AdhE protein of the ethanologenic strain ofC. thermocellumhas acquired high NADPH-linked ADH activity while maintaining NADH-linked ALDH and ADH activities at wild-type levels. When single amino acid mutations in AdhE that caused increased NADPH-linked ADH activity were introduced intoC. thermocellumandT. saccharolyticum, ethanol production increased in both organisms. Structural analysis of the wild-type and mutant AdhEmore » proteins was performed to provide explanations for the cofactor specificity change on a molecular level. This work describes the characterization of the AdhE enzyme from different strains ofC. thermocellumandT. saccharolyticum.C. thermocellumandT. saccharolyticumare thermophilic anaerobes that have been engineered to make high yields of ethanol and can solubilize components of plant biomass and ferment the sugars to ethanol. In the course of engineering these strains, several mutations arose in the bifunctional ADH/ALDH protein AdhE, changing both enzyme activity and cofactor specificity. We show that changing AdhE cofactor specificity from mostly NADH linked to mostly NADPH linked resulted in higher ethanol production byC. thermocellumandT. saccharolyticum.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1351568
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-2700-64950
Journal ID: ISSN 0021-9193
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Bacteriology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 197; Journal Issue: 15; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-9193
Publisher:
American Society for Microbiology
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; ethanol; yields; mutations; structural analysis; cofactor specificity

Citation Formats

Zheng, Tianyong, Olson, Daniel G., Tian, Liang, Bomble, Yannick J., Himmel, Michael E., Lo, Jonathan, Hon, Shuen, Shaw, A. Joe, van Dijken, Johannes P., Lynd, Lee R., and Metcalf, W. W. Cofactor Specificity of the Bifunctional Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (AdhE) in Wild-Type and Mutant Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1128/JB.00232-15.
Zheng, Tianyong, Olson, Daniel G., Tian, Liang, Bomble, Yannick J., Himmel, Michael E., Lo, Jonathan, Hon, Shuen, Shaw, A. Joe, van Dijken, Johannes P., Lynd, Lee R., & Metcalf, W. W. Cofactor Specificity of the Bifunctional Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (AdhE) in Wild-Type and Mutant Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum. United States. doi:10.1128/JB.00232-15.
Zheng, Tianyong, Olson, Daniel G., Tian, Liang, Bomble, Yannick J., Himmel, Michael E., Lo, Jonathan, Hon, Shuen, Shaw, A. Joe, van Dijken, Johannes P., Lynd, Lee R., and Metcalf, W. W. Tue . "Cofactor Specificity of the Bifunctional Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (AdhE) in Wild-Type and Mutant Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum". United States. doi:10.1128/JB.00232-15.
@article{osti_1351568,
title = {Cofactor Specificity of the Bifunctional Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (AdhE) in Wild-Type and Mutant Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum},
author = {Zheng, Tianyong and Olson, Daniel G. and Tian, Liang and Bomble, Yannick J. and Himmel, Michael E. and Lo, Jonathan and Hon, Shuen and Shaw, A. Joe and van Dijken, Johannes P. and Lynd, Lee R. and Metcalf, W. W.},
abstractNote = {Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticumare thermophilic bacteria that have been engineered to produce ethanol from the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of biomass, respectively. Although engineered strains of T. saccharolyticumproduce ethanol with a yield of 90% of the theoretical maximum, engineered strains ofC. thermocellumproduce ethanol at lower yields (~50% of the theoretical maximum). In the course of engineering these strains, a number of mutations have been discovered in theiradhEgenes, which encode both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. To understand the effects of these mutations, theadhEgenes from six strains ofC. thermocellumandT. saccharolyticumwere cloned and expressed inEscherichia coli, the enzymes produced were purified by affinity chromatography, and enzyme activity was measured. In wild-type strains of both organisms, NADH was the preferred cofactor for both ALDH and ADH activities. In high-ethanol-producing (ethanologen) strains ofT. saccharolyticum, both ALDH and ADH activities showed increased NADPH-linked activity. Interestingly, the AdhE protein of the ethanologenic strain ofC. thermocellumhas acquired high NADPH-linked ADH activity while maintaining NADH-linked ALDH and ADH activities at wild-type levels. When single amino acid mutations in AdhE that caused increased NADPH-linked ADH activity were introduced intoC. thermocellumandT. saccharolyticum, ethanol production increased in both organisms. Structural analysis of the wild-type and mutant AdhE proteins was performed to provide explanations for the cofactor specificity change on a molecular level. This work describes the characterization of the AdhE enzyme from different strains ofC. thermocellumandT. saccharolyticum.C. thermocellumandT. saccharolyticumare thermophilic anaerobes that have been engineered to make high yields of ethanol and can solubilize components of plant biomass and ferment the sugars to ethanol. In the course of engineering these strains, several mutations arose in the bifunctional ADH/ALDH protein AdhE, changing both enzyme activity and cofactor specificity. We show that changing AdhE cofactor specificity from mostly NADH linked to mostly NADPH linked resulted in higher ethanol production byC. thermocellumandT. saccharolyticum.},
doi = {10.1128/JB.00232-15},
journal = {Journal of Bacteriology},
issn = {0021-9193},
number = 15,
volume = 197,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}